Vocabulary Practice Questions for CLAT 2020

Vocabulary Practice Questions for CLAT 2020

PASSAGE 1​​ 

SOURCE:​​ https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/general-english/magazine/world-mental-health-day

World Mental Health Day, on 10 October, is a day to raise awareness of the effects mental illness has on millions of people’s lives across the world, and to help educate and inform us all. Around the world, one in four people will have some kind of mental illness during their lifetime. Around 450 million people are living with a mental health problem right now, making it one of the biggest health issues in the world. Yet people rarely talk about any mental health problems they have because there is still a lot of stigma. World Mental Health (WMH) Day was first celebrated in 1992. It was created to raise awareness of just how common mental health issues are, grapple against stigma and campaign for better conditions and treatment for people who have a mental health problem. The number of people and organisations involved in celebrating WMH Day has grown and grown, and now many countries, such as Australia, actually have a Mental Health Week, which includes WMH Day on 10 October. Each year there is a different theme. For example, in 2017 the theme was mental health in the workplace. World Mental Health (WMH) Day was first celebrated in 1992. It was created to raise awareness of just how common mental health issues are, fight against stigma and campaign for better conditions and treatment for people who have a mental health problem. The number of people and organisations involved in celebrating WMH Day has grown and grown, and now many countries, such as Australia, actually have a Mental Health Week, which includes WMH Day on 10 October. Each year there is a different theme. For example, in 2017 the theme was mental health in the workplace. Of course, we also need to look after our own mental health. Most people know that exercise is good for your body, but did you also know how good it is for your mental health? Punctilious exercise can really help you deal with anxiety and depression. Spending time in nature can also make people more relaxed and​​ abridge stress. So why not get your exercise by going for a walk in a park or the countryside? Your diet can also change your mood. If you eat crisps, cake, chocolate, etc., your blood sugar will rise and fall, making you feel cross and​​ tired. Make sure you are eating enough vegetables and fruit or you may be missing some nutrients you need to feel good. It’s also​​ decisive​​ to drink enough water – being thirsty can make it difficult to think clearly.​​ Everyone needs some time alone, but it’s also good for us to spend time with​​ other people. If you feel forlorn;​​ try volunteering. It’s a good way of meeting new people, and you will feel good for helping others. One survey showed that 48 per cent of people who volunteered for more than two years said they felt less depressed as a result. If you do have close friends and family, try talking to them more about how you feel and asking them to support you. Every time someone speaks to someone​​ else about mental illness, it helps to reduce the stigma.

Question: indentify the antonyms of the following words as mentioned in the passage:

  • Grapple

  • Fracas

  • Melee

  • Accord​​ 

  • Rumpus

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ ‘accord’ means to develop harmony and if we read the sentence where the given word is used ‘It was created to raise awareness of just how common mental health issues are,​​ grapple​​ against stigma and campaign for better conditions and treatment for people who have a mental health problem.’ We can infer that grapple refers to some fight or taking action against the stigma. Thus option c is the answer.

  • Punctilious

  • Atypical

  • Rhythmic

  • Unvarying

  • Methodical

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘Punctilious​​ exercise can really help you deal with anxiety and depression.’ It refers to doing exercise on a regular basis so as to reduce anxiety; it depicts a positive meaning. Only option ‘a’ denotes a negative meaning rest other options depict regularity, thus option ‘a’ is the answer.

  • Abridge

  • Trim

  • Taper

  • Abate

  • Prolong

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence​​ Spending time in nature can also make people more relaxed and​​ abridge​​ stress.’ The usage of the words depicts reduction of stress, and prolong refers to continue something for a long time. Thus option ‘d’ is the answer.

  • Decisive

  • Pivotal

  • Trivial

  • Momentous

  • Formidable

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘It’s also​​ decisive​​ to drink enough water – being thirsty can make it difficult to think clearly’. The sentence refers to the importance of drinking water and ‘trivial’ means something which is of less importance. Thus option b is the answer.

  • Forlorn

  • Destitute

  • Reclusive

  • Troglodytic

  • Befriended

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘If you feel​​ forlorn;​​ try volunteering. It’s a good way of meeting new people, and you will feel good for helping others.’ The word ‘forlorn’ here depicts loneliness, and in order to avoid it volunteering could be an option. Option‘d’ refers to friendliness and rest other options depict the same meaning as of loneliness. Therefore option‘d’ is the answer.

PASSAGE 2

SOURCE:​​ https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/skills/reading/upper-intermediate-b2/cultural-expectations-and-leadership

Gabriela worked for a multinational company as a successful project manager in Brazil and was transferred to manage a team in Sweden. She was excited about​​ her new role but soon realised that managing her new team would be a challenge.​​ Despite their friendliness, Gabriela didn't feel respected as a leader. Her new staff would question her proposals openly in meetings, and when she gave them instructions on how to carry out a task, they would often go about it in their own way without checking with her. When she announced her decisions on the project, they would continue giving their opinions as if it was still up for discussion. After weeks of frustration, Gabriela emailed her Swedish manager about the issues she was facing with her team. Her manager simply asked her if she felt her team was still performing, and what she thought would help her better collaborate with her team members. Gabriela found her manager vague and didn't feel as if he was managing the situation satisfactorily.​​ What Gabriela was experiencing was a cultural​​ wallop​​ in expectations. She was used to a more hierarchical framework where the team leader and manager took control and gave specific instructions on how things were to be done. This more directive management style worked well for her and her team in Brazil but did not transfer well to her new team in Sweden, who were more used to a​​ cajole​​ hierarchy where decision making was more democratic. When Gabriela took the issue to her Swedish manager, rather than stepping in with directions about what to do, her manager took on the role of coach and focused on getting her to come up with her own solutions instead. Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede uses the concept of 'power distance' to describe how power is distributed and how hierarchy is perceived in different cultures. In her previous work environment, Gabriela was used to a high power distance culture where power and authority are respected and everyone has their rightful place. In such a culture, leaders make the big decisions and are not often challenged. Her Swedish team, however, were used to working in a low power distance culture where subordinates often work together with their bosses to find solutions and make decisions. Here, leaders act as coaches or mentors who encourage independent thought and expect to be challenged.​​ When Gabriela became aware of the cultural differences between her and her team, she took the initiative to have an open conversation with them about their feelings about her leadership. Pleased to be asked for their thoughts, Gabriela's team openly expressed that they were not used to being told what to do. They enjoyed having more room for initiative and creative​​ leeway. When she told her team exactly what she needed them to do, they felt that she didn't​​ stock​​ them to do their job well. They realised that Gabriela was taking it personally when they tried to challenge or make changes to her decisions, and were able to explain that it was how they'd​​ always worked.​​ With a better understanding of the underlying reasons behind each other's behaviour, Gabriela and her team were able to​​ acclimate​​ their way of working. Gabriela was then able to make adjustments to her management style so as to better fit the expectations of her team and more effectively motivate her team to achieve their goals.

Question: indentify the synonyms of the following words as mentioned in the passage:

  • Wallop

  • Skirmish

  • Truce

  • Concord

  • Calm

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘What Gabriela was experiencing was a cultural​​ wallop​​ in expectations. She was used to a more hierarchical framework where the team leader and manager took control and gave specific instructions on how things were to be done.​​ The usage of the word depicts some scuffle, and options other than ‘a’ refers to calmness. Therefore option ‘a’ is the answer.

  • Cajole

  • Belittle

  • Castigate

  • Blandish

  • Condemn

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘This more directive management style worked well for her and her team in Brazil but did not transfer well to her new team in Sweden, who were more used to a​​ cajole​​ hierarchy where decision making was more democratic.’ The usage of the word refers to a flattery hierarchy;​​ therefore option c is the answer as other options refer to a negative meaning.

  • Stock

  • Certitude

  • Dubiety

  • Scepticism

  • Dubiousness

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘When she told her team exactly what she needed them to do, they felt that she didn't​​ stock​​ them to do their job well. They realised that Gabriela was taking it personally when they tried to challenge or make changes to her decisions, and were able to explain that it was how they'd always worked.’ The usage of the words depicts the meaning that Gabriela did not trust her team that they can do the job well. The closest meaning to trust amongst the options is ‘certitude’ as other options refer to doubtfulness. Thus option ‘a’ is the answer.

  • Acclimate

  • Unfit

  • Dislocate

  • Neglect

  • Tailor

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘With a better understanding of the underlying reasons behind each other's behaviour, Gabriela and her team were able to​​ acclimate​​ their​​ way of working.’ It can be easily understood that with a better understanding Gabriela and her team were able to adapt their way of working. Thus option‘d’ is the answer as the other options refer to a negative meaning.​​ 

  • Leeway

  • Servitude

  • Laxity

  • Incarceration

  • Subjection

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ the word is used in the sentence ‘Pleased to be asked for their thoughts, Gabriela's team openly expressed that they were not used to being told what to do. They enjoyed having more room for initiative and creative​​ leeway.’​​ From the sentence it can be inferred that when Gabriela’s team were not told what is to be done they had a room for initiative creative freedom, thus option ‘b’ is the answer as the other options refer to the meaning similar to restriction.

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