Reading Comprehension Practice Paper for English Language

Reading Comprehension Practice Paper for English Language

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.aresearchguide.com/plastic-ban-essay.html)

Most of the biggest economies on earth, such as China, USA and European nations have banned plastic bags. The nations that have not done it yet should also follow suit. Some of the concerns raised are that people will lose their sources of livelihood and that plastic bags are cheaper to produce. While these notions are far from false, the fact remains that plastic bags will destroy our environment and everything in it if we do not act now. When plastic bags are banned everywhere, innovators will come up with other alternatives. They will create companies and people will get employment as a result. When we consider production costs, the plastic bag is cheaper and easier to produce than eco-friendly bags. However, plastic bags are not durable and undergo wear and tear very easily. In fact, we quickly discard them into our garbage bins as soon as we reach home. Eco-friendly bags, such as cotton bags are actually very durable and can washed and reused over and over again. They are actually cheaper in the long run, because they do not require government intervention to clear them from the streets. They easily decay and disappear from the face of the earth. It is actually absurd to spend money to produce something that will cost you more than three times its value to try and get rid of it. Banning is probably the surest way of securing the future for the coming generations. All nations should have one voice and agree unanimously to stop plastic bag production. It is worth noting that plastic bags from one nation are enough to pollute the whole world. So, if the developed nations have banned plastic bags, but developing nations are still producing them, then that changes nothing. Still all the toxic waste will find its way to the oceans and eventually, to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Educating or sensitizing people about the hazards of plastic will not help deal with the problem in developing nations. They will most definitely use them still. And it is not an issue of ignorance or arrogance, because they can see and smell the garbage heaps next to their homesteads. The issue is cost. Most people in developed nations live below poverty line. They cannot afford to spend any more money on environmental friendly bags. So, the best approach is banning. It should be illegal to own or even carry plastic bags. Heavy penalties should be imposed on anyone found with plastic bags. Even though they will still exist in the black markets, they should be so expensive to the point that people will prefer eco-friendly bags to plastic bags. The governments should also step ahead and offer subsidies and incentives to companies creating eco-friendly bags. The governments should also fund extensive experimentation and researches on better alternatives to all plastic forms and not just plastic bags to end the manufacture of all plastics completely. There should also be extensive researches on the best method of dealing with the heaps of plastic wastes piled all over the world. We cannot just assume that there is no elephant in the room. The waste has to be dealt with pronto or its toxicity will become airborne. We need to get rid of all plastic wastes forever.​​ 

Questions

  • Why if developed nations ban plastic bag and developing nations will keep producing them it will change nothing?

  • Developed nations cannot function efficiently without developing nations

  • To secure a change it is important to have unanimous voice

  • The waste can be easily carried​​ away from developing nations to the rest of the world

  • Majority of plastic waste gets collected in developing nations only

Ans. c

Rationale: if the developed nations have banned plastic bags, but developing nations are still producing them, then that changes nothing. Still all the toxic waste will find its way to the oceans and eventually, to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

  • According to the passage in the long run which bag will be cheaper and why?

  • Plastic bag because they are cheap to produce

  • Eco-friendly bags because they are durable and dispose of naturally

  • Plastic bags because they can be discarded quickly

  • Eco-friendly bags because it is easy to produce them

Ans. b

Rationale: Eco-friendly bags are actually cheaper in the long run, because they do not require government intervention to clear them from the streets. They easily decay and disappear from the face of the earth.

  • What concerns are raised by nations as explanation to not banning production of plastic?

  • There is no alternative to plastic bag

  • Production of plastic bag is convenient as compared to environment friendly bags

  • It is easy to discard plastic bags

  • People will lose their source of livelihood

Ans. d

Rationale: The nations that have not done it yet should also follow suit. Some of the concerns raised are that people will lose their sources of livelihood and that plastic bags are cheaper to produce

  • Why educating people in developing nations about the hazards of plastic will be of no help?

  • Plastic is an essential item for the developing nations for growing

  • There is no alternative of plastic for developing nations

  • Developing nations cannot afford environment friendly bags

  • People in developing nation due to lack of education will be unable to understand the hazards of plastic

Ans. c

Rationale: Educating or sensitizing people about the hazards of plastic will not help deal with the problem in developing nations. They will most definitely use them still. And it is not an issue of ignorance or arrogance, because they can see and smell the garbage heaps next to their homesteads. The issue is cost. Most people in developed nations live below poverty line. They cannot afford to spend any more money on environmental friendly bags

  • What do you mean by the idiom ‘elephant in the room’?

  • Practical solution which is known to everyone

  • Dangerous thing that everyone is scared of

  • Obvious problem that everyone is aware about

  • A giant problem whose solution is difficult to find

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ ‘elephant in the room’ is a metaphorical idiom in English for an issue that is obvious or everyone knows but no one wants to discuss or mention it.

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/the-new-emerging-women-power-ground-realities)

Women are dominating the key positions in much​​ fields that were earlier denied to them. The emergence of women to the strategic positions in the social structures has given way to a relatively better understanding and identification of the oppressive practices. However, these transformations seem to be insignificant when compared to the number of issues that continue to degenerate the conditions of women in the society. Also, new challenges have emerged that impede the holistic development of women. Crime against women has been on the rampant rise in the country along with the growth in the number of career-oriented women in the professional space. Cyber crimes such as sexual harassment and molestation of women through the internet and mobile devices have gone up along with the technological development in the country. As the nation basks in the various scientific and economic achievements, half of its population writhes under the fear of rape, trafficking, domestic violence, honour killing, acid attacks, and sexual harassments. Child marriage, dowry demands, and female infanticide remain a harsh reality even after the strict attempts of their prohibition through the law. These practices are the major reasons behind the skewed sex ratio in the society.
While the country congratulates itself on the achieving the Millennium Development Goal of gender parity at the primary school level, it has done little to overcome the high dropout rates of female students. As the country boasts of women holding the significant chairs in governance like Head of the state, Speaker of Lok Sabha, eminent ministries and top-notch places in the corporate sectors and strategic positions in other arenas of productivity, a large number of women are struggling for their livelihoods as migrant labourers and low paid workers in the informal sector. According to a recently released Monster Salary Index, there exists a gender pay gap of 27% in the country. The overlapping of gender issues with several other issues like caste and poverty worsens the plight of women belonging to these categories. Women workforce in the rural areas that is more exposed to these tribulations comparatively experiences larger pay gaps. India records a High Maternal Mortality Rate and a large number of women suffer from anaemia in the face of the new schemes continuously launched by the government to improve the health conditions of women. The discrimination and violence faced by the women also have deep-rooted effects on their mental health which goes largely unnoticed by the government policies. The concept of ‘emerging women power’ seems to be eyewash in the context of these ground realities. Most of the measures adopted​​ by the state follow the top-down approach and essentially consider women as mere beneficiaries of the welfare schemes. Women are not empowered to understand and confront the structures of patriarchy. ‘Decision making’ which is emphasized upon in the process of empowering women, have to emerge out of knowledge and informed mediation to​​ instil​​ changes in the familial structures and social arrangements that would help in the evolution of gender roles.​​ Education plays an important role in the conditioning of the young minds towards the concept of gender. Schools become one of the initial stages where internalization of the performance of gender roles takes place. Gender sensitized pedagogy is needed for the subversion of these roles. Instilling sensitivity towards the dignity of women, emphasizing the development of ethical stand towards the equality in the boys can provide the society with responsible and sensitive individuals.

Questions​​ 

  • What is the irony faced by the country on achieving Millennium Development Goal of gender parity at the primary school?

  • It has achieved the equal male female ratio in the schools

  • Females have been provided quota in schools

  • Female ratio has increased in schools

  • Rate of female dropout students is not effected

Ans. d

Rationale: While the country congratulates itself on the achieving the Millennium Development Goal of gender parity at the primary school level, it has done little to overcome the high dropout rates of female students.

  • Why are cyber crimes acing now- a-days?

  • People spend more time on internet

  • People get new ideas to commit crime form internet

  • Technological advancement has made people vulnerable to such crimes

  • It is easy to commit cyber crimes

Ans. c

Rationale: Cyber crimes such as sexual harassment and molestation of women through the internet and mobile devices have gone up along with the technological development in the country

  • Why the concept of ‘emerging women power’ does seem to be eyewash?

  • The ground realities faced by the women are ignored in government policies

  • Government do not take adequate steps for women empowerment

  • Women are suppressed by patriarchal society

  • Women face sexual harassment in professional space

Ans. a

Rationale: The discrimination and violence faced by the women also have deep-rooted effects on their mental health which goes largely unnoticed by the government policies. The concept of ‘emerging women power’ seems to be eyewash in the context of these ground realities.

  • According to the passage why do majority of women suffer anaemia?

  • They do not get adequate food supplies

  • There are no healthcare facilities available

  • Government launches inefficient healthcare schemes

  • Government fail to provide subsidies for the well being of women

Ans. c

Rationale: India records a High Maternal Mortality Rate and a large number of women suffer from anaemia in the face of the new schemes continuously launched by the government to improve the health conditions of women.

  • Women are dominating (a) the key positions in much fields (b) that were earlier denied to them (c) no error (d)

Ans. b

Rationale: instead of ‘much’ ‘many’ will be used as we use many before countable nouns and much before uncountable nouns and ‘fields’ is a countable noun.

 

 

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