Practice Questions on Legal Reasoning for CLAT 2020

Practice Questions on Legal Reasoning for CLAT 2020

Passage 1​​ 

Source: (https://indiankanoon.org/doc/42184625/)

The right to self-determination connotes the right to sexual self-determination that is the freedom to choose sexual activities and partners, implying that the provision at issue restricts the right to sexual self-determination of individuals. In​​ addition, the provision at issue also restricts the right to privacy protected under Article 17 of the Constitution in that it restricts activities arising out of sexual life belonging​​ to the intimate private domain.​​ The Court used the test of least restrictiveness, and began by acknowledging that there no longer existed public consensus on the criminalization of adultery, with the societal structure having changed from holding traditional family values and a typeset role of family members to sexual views driven by liberal thought and individualism. While recognizing that marital infidelity is immoral and unethical, the Court stated that love and sexual life were intimate concerns, and they should not be made subject to criminal law. The society is changing into one where the private interest of sexual autonomy is put before the social interest of sexual morality and families from the perspective of dignity and​​ happiness of individuals.​​ Article 10 of the South Korean Constitution states,​​ “All citizens are assured of human worth and dignity and have the right to pursue happiness. It is the duty of the State to confirm and guarantee the fundamental and inviolable human rights of individuals.” Existing families face breakdown with the invoking of the right to file an accusation. Even after cancellation of the accusation, it is difficult to hope for emotional recovery between spouses. Therefore, the adultery crime can no longer contribute to protecting the marital system or family order. Furthermore, there is little possibility that a person who was punished for adultery would remarry the spouse who had made an accusation against himself/herself. It is neither possible to protect harmonious family order because of the intensified conflict between spouses in the process of criminal punishment of adultery.​​ It is true that the existence of adultery crimes in the past Korean society served to protect women. Women were socially and economically underprivileged, and acts of adultery were mainly committed by men. Therefore, the existence of an adultery crime acted as psychological deterrence for men, and, furthermore, enabled female spouses to receive payment of compensation for grief or divided assets from the male spouse on the condition of cancelling the adultery accusation.

However, the changes of our society diluted the justification of criminal punishment of adultery. Above all, as women are earning power and economic capabilities have improved with more active social and economic activities, the premise that women are the economically disadvantaged does not apply to all​​ married couples.​​ Finally, the Court concluded its analysis by holding that the interests of enforcing monogamy, protecting marriage and promoting marital fidelity, balanced against.

Questions

  • What are the reasons responsible for decriminalizing of adultery in the common opinion of the society?

  • Joint family culture turning into nuclear

  • Change in family values driven by individualism

  • Adultery became socially acceptable

  • Adultery no more pricked the conscience of the society

Ans. b

Rationale: The Court used the test of least restrictiveness, and began by acknowledging that there no longer existed public consensus on the criminalization of adultery, with the societal structure having changed from holding traditional family values and a typeset role of family members to sexual views driven by liberal thought and individualism.

  • Initially what was the reason for creating adultery as crime in Korea?

  • To give women and men equal rights to choose their partner

  • To create a social deterrence for such moral evil

  • Punishment to men for engaging with another women

  • Protection of women from the whims of men

Ans. d

Rationale: It is true that the existence of adultery crimes in the past Korean society served to protect women. Women were socially and economically underprivileged, and acts of adultery were mainly committed by men.

  • Freedom to choose sexual partner is granted by which part of the Constitution?

  • Part II

  • Part III

  • Part IV

  • None of the above

Ans. b

Rationale: part III of the constitution guarantees fundamental rights and​​ freedom to choose sexual partner​​ forms the part of right to self determination and right to privacy which are granted by the Articles of Part III

  • It is advocated that holding adultery as a crime will help in harmonising families as it will create deterrence in the minds of the spouses. Decide does this stand hold true?

  • Yes as spouses will be scared of punishment and will not commit adultery

  • No, it is not possible to protect harmonious family order because of the intensified conflict between spouses​​ 

  • Yes as spouses as punishment of adultery can be ordered to live together​​ 

  • No as the spouses when once decide to have relations with another cannot be forced to again live together

Ans. b

Rationale: there is little possibility that a person who was punished for adultery would remarry the spouse who had made an accusation against himself/herself. It is neither​​ possible to protect harmonious family order because of the intensified conflict between spouses in the process of criminal punishment of adultery.

  • What do you understand by the term marital fidelity?

  • Have two spouses at a time

  • Committing the act of adultery

  • Faithfulness to the partner in marriage

  • Having destructive marriage

Ans. c

Rationale: fidelity refers to faithfulness to a person demonstrated by loyalty. Marital fidelity refers to being loyal to one’s partner in marriage.

Passage 2

Source: (https://indiankanoon.org/doc/42184625/)

In all legislations the married woman is more or less openly considered as the property of the husband and is very often confounded, absolutely confounded, with things possessed. To use her, therefore, without the authority of her owner is theft. But adultery is not a common theft. An object, an inert possession, is passive things; their owner may well punish the thief who has taken them, but him only. In adultery, the object of larceny, the wife, is a sentient and thinking​​ being​​ that is to say, an accomplice in the attempt on her husband’s property in her own person; moreover he generally has her in his keeping.​​ The law on adultery is but a codified rule of patriarchy. Patriarchy has permeated the lives of women for centuries. Ostensibly, society has two sets of standards of morality​​ for judging sexual behaviour.​​ One set for its female members and another for males.​​ Society ascribes impossible virtues to a woman and confines her to a narrow sphere of behaviour by an expectation of conformity.​​ Raising a woman to a pedestal is one part of the endeavour. The second part is all about confining her to a space. The boundaries of that space are defined by what a woman should or should not be. A society which perceives women as pure and an embodiment of virtue has no qualms of subjecting them to virulent attack: to rape, honour killings, sex-determination and infanticide. As an embodiment of virtue, society expects the women to be a mute spectator to and even accepting of egregious discrimination within the home. This is part of the process of raising women to a pedestal conditioned by male notions of what is right and what is wrong for a woman. Anachronistic conceptions of ‘chastity’ and ‘honour’ have dictated the social and cultural lives of women, depriving them of the guarantees of dignity and privacy, contained in the Constitution.​​ The right to privacy depends on the exercise of autonomy and agency by individuals. In situations where citizens are disabled from exercising these essential attributes, Courts must step in to ensure that dignity is realised in the fullest sense. Familial structures cannot be regarded as private spaces where constitutional rights are violated. To grant immunity in situations when rights of individuals are in​​ siege​​ is to obstruct the unfolding vision of the Constitution. The opinion delivered on behalf of four judges in K​​ S Puttaswamy v Union of India​​ has recognised the dangers of the “use of privacy as a veneer for patriarchal domination and abuse of women.”

Questions

  • What irony prevails in patriarchal society?

  • On one hand man and woman are considered equal and on other hand women are confided into a restricted space

  • On one hand she is considered as the purest creature and on other she is made subject to honour killings

  • On one hand woman is worshipped and on the other hand she is considered an embodiment of virtue

  • On one hand she is considered the purest creature and on the other hand embodiment of virtue.

Ans. b

Rationale: A society which perceives women as pure and an embodiment of virtue has no qualms of subjecting them to virulent attack: to rape, honour killings, sex-determination and infanticide.

  • What was the strength of the bench of judges which realised dangers of the use of privacy as a veneer for patriarchal domination?

  • 2 judges bench

  • 3 judges bench

  • 4 judges bench

  • 5 judges bench

Ans. c

Rationale: The opinion delivered on behalf of four judges in K S​​ Puttaswamy v​​ Union of India has recognised the dangers of the “use of privacy as a veneer for patriarchal domination and abuse of women.”

  • Why an analogy is drawn between the offence of theft and adultery?

  • Because theft and adultery both shakes the conscience of the society

  • Because theft and adultery have common grounds of defence

  • Because committing theft amounts to disloyalty towards the owner

  • Because wife is considered as property of husband​​ 

Ans. d

Rationale: In all legislations the married woman is more or less openly considered as the property of the husband and is very often confounded, absolutely confounded, with things possessed. To use her, therefore, without the authority of her owner is theft.

  • It is advocated that court cannot take any action against the acts committed inside the house of a person. Decide does this notion hold true?

  • Yes as there is no right of court to enter into the personal space of people

  • Yes as until a major wrong is caused courts cannot proceed

  • No when any fundamental right is violated family house cannot be regarded as a personal space

  • No because court has the right to step into every wrong committed by any person

Ans. c

Rationale: Courts must step in to ensure that dignity is realised in the fullest sense. Familial structures cannot be regarded as private spaces where constitutional rights are violated

  • What do you understand by the term accomplice?

  • One who instigates for the offence

  • One who helps another to commit crime

  • One who gives statement about commission of crime against the other in lieu of acquittal

  • Both b and c

Ans. b

  • Rationale: the term accomplice refers to a person who helps another to commit crime.

 

Take our test on offences against property under ipc here.

Read our post on the Landmark Judgements of 2019-2020.

Read our post on Elements of Crime.

Read CLATapult’s post on offer and acceptance here. Also, try their mocks for more legal reasoning practice questions

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