Practice Questions for CLAT 2020 on English Language Comprehension

Practice Questions for CLAT 2020 on English Language Comprehension

Passage 1

An NEP is a comprehensive framework to guide the development of education in the country. The need for a policy was first felt in 1964 when Congress MP Siddheshwar Prasad criticised the then government for lacking a vision and philosophy for education. The same year, a 17-member Education Commission, headed by then UGC Chairperson D S Kothari, was constituted to ----(1)---- a national and coordinated policy on education. Based on the suggestions of this Commission, Parliament passed the first education policy in 1968. A new NEP usually comes along every few decades. India has had three to date. The first came in 1968 and the second in 1986, under Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi respectively; the NEP of 1986 was revised in 1992 when P V Narasimha Rao was Prime Minister. The third is the NEP released Wednesday under the Prime Ministership of Narendra Modi. The NEP proposes sweeping changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), introduction of a four-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme with multiple exit options, and discontinuation of the M Phil programme. In school education, the policy focuses on overhauling the curriculum, “easier” Board exams, a reduction in the syllabus to retain “core essentials” and thrust on “experiential learning and​​ ---(2)---”. In a significant shift from the 1986 policy, which pushed for a 10+2 structure of school education, the new NEP pitches for a “5+3+3+4” design corresponding to the age groups 3-8 years (foundational stage), 8-11 (preparatory), 11-14 (middle), and 14-18 (secondary). This brings early childhood education (also known as pre-school education for children of ages 3 to 5) under the ambit of formal schooling. The mid-day meal programme will be extended to pre-school children. The NEP says students until Class 5 should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language. The policy also proposes phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and that all universities and colleges must aim to become multidisciplinary by 2040.

Source

  • Which of the following word will fill in the (1) blank correctly?

  • Draft

  • Write

  • Make

  • None of these

  • Which of the following changes are not introduced by NEP 2020?

  • discontinuation of the M Phil programme

  • opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities

  • five-year multidisciplinary undergraduate programme

  • dismantling of the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

  • Which of the following word will fill in the (2) blank correctly?

  • Over thinking

  • Critical thinking

  • Serious thinking

  • Light thinking

  • In school education, focus has been made on easier board exams because

  • School students are overburdened

  • For​​ better​​ health of students

  • So as to retain core essentials

  • Thrust on selective learning

  • Which of the following words do not have same meaning as ​​ ‘ reduction’?

Passage 2:

The last decade has seen a very significant increase in the international policy community’s interest in corruption. From 1998 to present 38 countries have ratified the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. At the end of 2005 the UN convention against corruption, the most comprehensive corruption convention to date, entered into force. In 2007 The World Bank launched its Strengthening World Bank Group Engagement on Governance and Anticorruption (GAC) strategy. In recent years the US Department of Justice and Security and Exchange Commission have dramatically increased their enforcements under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Action. 1​​ Alongside, several international aid agencies including the Millennium Challenge Corporation have made aid disbursements to low-income countries conditional on a country’s corruption record. These initiatives reflect a growing academic and policy consensus that corruption is often high in low-income countries, and is costly. The growing policy activism that conditions international assistance on corruption outcome, in turn, reflects a belief that given the right incentives politicians, bureaucrats and civil society in these countries can reduce corruption. Evaluating these claims requires answers to three questions. The first and, arguably most basic, question which underlies policy design is: how prevalent is corruption? Second, what are the costs of corruption (i.e., is corruption actually harmful)? Finally, what factors influence the level of corrupt behavior? For example, is corrupt behavior responsive to economic incentives and market forces, and in what ways? Are there other effective approaches that can be brought to bear on corruption, such as technology, and how might corrupt officials react to such changes?

 

 

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