Practice Paper for English Language of CLAT 2020

Practice Paper for English Language of CLAT 2020

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/national-identity-and-patriotism)

The history of origin of National identity illustrates the importance of political events in the formation or emergence of modern nation-states. But that politics itself has been a derivative of interplay of diverse factors. National identity as such seems to be a superset of a combination of factors which include linguistic identities, regional loyalties, culture, religion and history. Linguistic identities have been a feature of several demands of national self-determination. The wave of Nationalism in Europe in 18th and 19th century and the more recent struggle for and foundation of Bangladesh was largely based upon this very premise. One Nation-One Language was also mooted as the idea for the basis of national identity largely based upon the European experience. Similarly regional or ethnic identities have also acted as foundation of national identities. The disintegration of USSR into multiple nation states was seen as the culmination of the struggle for freedom of diverse groups that were ethnically diverse. The making and remaking of various African boundaries is also seen as the result of the assertion of ethnic identities as separate national identity. Culture has also served as the bedrock of various nationalisms. The diversity of cultures has been seen as a challenge to the formation of a strong singular national identity. This line of argumentation also spilled over to religious identity as well. Religion was used as the basis for the two nation theory which led to the partition of United India into India and Pakistan. The modern state of Israel is also an example of the formation of National identity on the basis of an imagined coherence between Culture and Religion on one hand and Nation-State on the other. All or any of these identities are given the form of National identity with the help of history. It is history of the Nation which gives legitimacy to national identity and assertion of sovereignty by that nation. Renan has even sarcastically remarked that ‘Getting its history wrong is part of being a nation’. This is the reason all nations try to trace their history to a hoary past. Failure of being able to discover or forge one’s history is seen as an existential question mark constantly lurking upon its national identity. Benedict Anderson has famously theorized that ‘Nation is an imagined community. It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives​​ the image of their communion.​​ Communities are to be distinguished, not by their falsity/genuineness, but by the style in which they are imagined’. Ultimately it is the width and depth of the imagination of this community which decides the course of a nation.​​ Countries like​​ India, with multiple and diverse linguistic, religious and ethnic identities could claim to be a nation only because of the inclusiveness and tolerance that has been its hallmark since centuries. When various groups feel assured that their identities would not be threatened, but will actually flourish in the idea or imagination of a nation, only then a diverse but united nation like India can sustain and grow.​​ Only an inclusive imagination can breed patriots, since exclusivity breeds division, secession and war. As such Patriotism is not only a display of love and a deep sense of affection for one’s country; it is also a feeling of pride. Rabindranath Tagore often used a term ‘Deshabhimaan’ as a synonym for this word in his works which aptly captures one of the dimensions of this word.

Questions

  • Why is failure of being able to discover one’s history is seen as an existential question upon national identity?

  • History of a nation explains about its future

  • History of a nation helps to minimise shortcomings in future

  • History of a nation which gives legitimacy to national identity

  • History of a nation impacts the national identity

Ans. c

Rationale: It is history of the Nation which gives legitimacy to national identity and assertion of sovereignty by that nation. Renan has even sarcastically remarked that ‘Getting its history wrong is part of being a nation’. This is the reason all nations try to trace their history to a hoary past. Failure of being able to discover or forge one’s history is seen as an existential question mark constantly lurking upon its national identity.

  • What are the challenges faced in developing strong national identity?

  • Gender discrimination

  • Ethnic diversities

  • Economic parity

  • Lack of unity

Ans. b

Rationale: The diversity of cultures has been seen as a challenge to the formation of a strong singular national identity

  • When can a nation with diverse culture flourish and grow?

  • When diverse groups don’t feel threatened to protect their identity

  • When diverse groups merge into the same culture and identity

  • When all the diverse groups are given equal treatment

  • When diverse groups leave their individual identity

Ans. a

Rationale: When various groups feel assured that their identities would not be threatened, but will actually flourish in the idea or imagination of a nation, only then a diverse but united nation like India can sustain and grow.

  • What all factors are responsible for the establishment of national identity?

  • Social and cultural

  • Regional and social

  • Linguistic identities and equality

  • Culture and religion

Ans. d

Rationale: National identity as such seems to be a superset of a combination of factors which include linguistic identities, regional loyalties, culture, religion and history.

  • Find the synonym of the word ‘sustain’

  • Abstain

  • Bolster

  • Halt​​ 

  • Hinder

Ans. b

Rationale: sustain means to keep up or maintain. All the options other than b​​ refer to give up or cause​​ obstruction.

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/the-focus-of-healthcare-is-increasingly-getting-skewed-towards-the%20-haves-of-our-society)

Good health is one of the most fundamental and basic essential needs of all human beings. That is why, third of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the world leaders last year aims to ensure good health for all. Indian constitution also implicitly recognizes good health as one of the fundamental rights guaranteed under the right to life. In absence of good health all of man’s​​ endeavours​​ will be deemed useless. For India to​​ fulfil​​ its dream of becoming a developed and prosperous nation it must take care of the most important of its resources i.e. its human capital. India is on the cusp of demographic dividend with the economically productive (15-59 years of age) portion of its population going above the 60% mark. But India can fully utilize this potential only if it is successful in providing for its population proper education, skills, nutrition and healthcare. Among all this, importance of healthcare is perhaps the highest as only a healthy person can be productive enough to fully utilize his skills. Therefore healthcare is of paramount importance for an individual to lead a fulfilling life and also for the whole nation to progress. However is the Indian healthcare system itself in a healthy state? India has a disproportionately high share of health problems and diseases like child stunting, diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer etc. In the recent round of National Sample Survey (NSS) it was found that over 80% of Indians do not have health insurance cover and that a majority of people in the rural areas utilize private sector health services. Given the relatively lower levels of per capita income in rural areas of our country all these findings certainly raise a question over whether the healthcare system in India is increasingly getting skewed towards the population that has the means to afford it. To analyze the nature of the health care sector, we can focus on the three major aspects i.e. accessibility, affordability and quality of the healthcare facilities. On all three fronts Indian health care system has had a mixed record. Accessibility to healthcare facilities is high in urban areas as compared to rural areas. The private sector does not find it viable to increase its penetration in rural areas given the low purchasing power whereas the public sector lacks resources, efficiency and enterprise associated with private sector. This is the reason why as per the NSS survey over 70% of both rural and urban people had to resort to private healthcare facilities despite higher costs associated with them. Private sector healthcare is more costly as compared to public sector for the obvious reason of absence of state subsidy​​ and the guiding motive of profit and hence parameters of Tendulkar​​ methodology for measuring poverty, over 21% of Indians fail to earn enough to spend more than Rs. 33 per day. In such a situation it would be unrealistic and cruel on the part of state to expect the market driven sector to cater to health care needs of even the marginalized sections of the Indian society. That is why, ‘Financial Restriction’ was the major reason chosen by respondents in the latest NSS survey for not being able to utilize the healthcare facilities, both in rural as well as urban areas.

Questions

  • In order to fully utilize the skills of humans, the government should pay attention on which of the following dimensions?

  • Healthcare

  • Education

  • Labour

  • Technology

Ans. a

Rationale: India can fully utilize this potential only if it is successful in providing for its population proper education, skills, nutrition and healthcare. Among all this, importance of healthcare is perhaps the highest as only a healthy person can be productive enough to fully utilize his skills. Therefore healthcare is of paramount

  • Why it will be cruel on the part of State to expect private health care institutions to treat weaker section on marginalised rates?

  • Private sector work with profit motive and cannot be forced to decrease their rates

  • Private sector get limited patients thus it gets difficult to reach break-even point

  • Private sectors are costly than public sectors and they are market driven

  • None of the above

Ans. c

Rationale: Private sector healthcare is more costly as compared to public sector for the obvious reason of absence of state subsidy and the guiding motive of profit and hence parameters of Tendulkar methodology for measuring poverty, over 21% of Indians fail to earn enough to spend more than Rs. 33 per day. In such a situation it would be unrealistic and cruel on the part of state to expect the market driven sector to cater to health care needs of even the marginalized sections of the Indian society.

  • Why is accessibility to healthcare facilities high in urban areas as compared to rural areas?

  • Medical practitioners are not interested in practicing in rural areas

  • There is space for advanced healthcare facilities in rural area

  • There occurs no need of such facilities in rural area

  • Low purchasing power of people living in rural area

Ans. d

Rationale: Accessibility to healthcare facilities is high in urban areas as compared to rural areas. The private sector does not find it viable to increase its penetration in rural​​ areas given the low purchasing power whereas the public sector lacks resources, efficiency and enterprise associated with private sector.

  • According to the passage, in order to become a developed nation a country should take care of which of the following resources?

  • Land and other movable property

  • Human capital

  • Economic resources

  • Essential goods

Ans. b

Rationale: For India to fulfil its dream of becoming a developed and prosperous nation it must take care of the most important of its resources i.e. its human capital.

  • Select the antonym for the word ‘cater’

  • Pamper

  • Abstain

  • Gratify

  • Pander

Ans. b

Rationale: cater means to provide with what is needed. All the options other than b mean the same. Abstain means to stop providing something.

 

Questions got you stumped? Read our post on spelling correction.

Read our posts on CLAT English Language.

Read CLATapult’s post on a guide to acing CLAT English.

Read our post on Spotting the Error.

Got doubts about CLAT 2020? Find all your answers and much more here.

Get CLATalogue' Posts in Your Inbox