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English: One Word Substitution for CLAT

One Word Substitution for CLAT

One word substitution forms part of the vocabulary. It is asked in exams in the form of vocabulary questions thus becomes very relevant in CLAT and other law entrance examinations.

The students in these types of questions have to identify the word whose meaning is provided in the question. The CLAT examination is expecting students to use their presence of mind and devise the answers thus there is no need to memorize a whole list of one-word substitution words.

One now needs to read the comprehension or passage and interpret the possible word for the provided meaning.

There are certain meanings for which a particular word is provided in the English Language and we use them in general parlance instead of using the whole big sentence. For example, instead of saying that I want to do the study of antiquities, human history and analysis of artefacts we can simply say I want to study Archaeology.

One word for the study of antiquities, human history and analysis of artefacts is Archaeology. Similarly, if we want to that this plate can be broken easily, instead of it we can simply say that this plate is brittle. Brittle is one word for ‘which can be easily broken’.

But we need not memorise these words they can be interpreted by using the following tricks:

In a passage, there will be only a handful of words of which you will not know the exact meaning otherwise the rest of the passage will be in elementary English which can be understood by all.

Firstly, identify these words given in the question as options and highlight them.

Then, read the question very carefully and keep in your mind the meaning given in the question.

Thereafter, keeping in mind the meaning asked in the question read the passage thoroughly, by focussing on the sentences where these words are used and try to fit the meaning in place of the words which you have highlighted so as to give the sentence a sensible meaning.

Then, wherein the place of the highlighted word the ‘meaning given in the question’ fits so that the sense of the sentence remains unchanged in the light of previous and successive sentences, that particular word will be your answer.

Secondly, if the meaning given in the question given is in a positive tone then try to fit it only in positive meaning sentences and vice versa.

Thirdly, you can also eliminate the options which you know carry the different tone than that of the meaning given or you are sure about that the meaning of the option word is different from the meaning asked in the question.

Application of these tricks will become clearer with the following example:

Passage from here

Industrial activity in the new financial year appears to have started on a healthier note than the trend witnessed in the last quarter of the previous fiscal, the government’s latest quick estimates show.

Industrial output rose 3.4% in April, buoyed by a generally broad-based revival that saw electricity, mining and even manufacturing post faster growth compared to the listless performance witnessed in the January-March period.

In fact, manufacturing output growth, which had decelerated sharply from the pace of 8.2% in October to a revised level of less than 0.1% in March, rebounded to a four-month high of 2.8%.

A look at the use-based classification reveals that all six segments were in positive territory, with only infrastructure and construction goods marking a slowdown from both the earlier year and March levels and providing cause for some concern.

Hearteningly, capital goods, a sector that serves as a closely tracked proxy for business spending intentions, posted a 2.5% expansion, snapping three straight months of contraction.

To be sure, the growth even in this key area trails the pace of 9.8% that was reported in April 2018 by a wide margin, and it would be premature to celebrate the single reading until a more abiding trend emerges in the coming months. It would be interesting to see what growth-supportive policy measures Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman unveils in the newly elected government’s and her own maiden budget.

This week’s other data release from the government was, however, less reassuring, revealing as it did an acceleration in retail inflation to a seven-month high. Price gains measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) quickened to 3.05% in May, from April’s 2.99%, as prices of vegetables and pulses jumped by 23% and 10% respectively in urban areas, contributing to a bump-up in food inflation.

The Reserve Bank of India had last week flagged the risks to the inflation trajectory from factors including spikes in vegetable prices and international fuel prices and marginally raised its CPI inflation projection for the fiscal first half to a 3% to 3.1% range.

While the inflation reading remains below the RBI’s inflation threshold of 4%, policymakers would need to keep a close watch on price trends, especially as global energy prices continue to remain volatile amid heightened geopolitical tensions in West Asia and uncertainty on the demand outlook owing to the ongoing China-U.S. trade spat.

And while the monsoon is forecast to be normal this year, the actual rainfall and its spatial distribution will have a significant bearing on agricultural output and food prices. A fiscally prudent budget, with incentives to support the nascent industrial recovery, would surely tick several boxes at one go.

Question: identify one word from the above passage of the following meaning.

  1. The organisation that has just come into existence :
  2. Volatile
  3. Trend
  4. Nascent
  5. Bump- up

Now firstly identify the sentences where these words are used. Then in each of those sentences fit in the meaning ‘The organisation that has just come into existence’

So volatile is used in ‘While the inflation reading remains below the RBI’s inflation threshold of 4%, policymakers would need to keep a close watch on price trends, especially as global energy prices continue to remain volatile amid heightened geopolitical tensions in West Asia and uncertainty on the demand outlook owing to the ongoing China-U.S. trade spat’.

Here the meaning given in the question does not fit well so as to give the sentence the desired meaning as the sentence is talking about price trends and inflation and not of any organisation coming into existence.

Then, trend is a common word which of course does not mean as the meaning given in question.

Then, nascent is used in ‘A fiscally prudent budget, with incentives to support the nascent industrial recovery, would surely tick several boxes at one go’.

In this sentence, the meaning given in the question fits suitably as the sentence is talking about industries which can be supported by prudent fiscal budget and if we replace the word nascent with the question then also the meaning of the sentence will remain in tack.

Now when you have recognized the answer there is no need to go on the next option but to be on the safer side you can check the last option also in the same manner as above.

  1. One which is liable to change rapidly and unpredictably
  2. Prudent
  3. Volatile
  4. Trail
  5. Maiden

Now following the same pattern as above, firstly highlight these words given as options in the passage and check them one by one by replacing with the question.

Prudent is used in ‘A fiscally prudent budget, with incentives to support the nascent industrial recovery, would surely tick several boxes at one go’. In this sentence prudent does not convey a meaning of changing rapidly as it is talking of a budget which is more rational and stable to act as an incentive for the new industries.

Volatile is used in ‘While the inflation reading remains below the RBI’s inflation threshold of 4%, policymakers would need to keep a close watch on price trends, especially as global energy prices continue to remain volatile amid heightened geopolitical tensions in West Asia and uncertainty on the demand outlook owing to the ongoing China-U.S. trade spat’.

The meaning given in the question clearly fits in here as the sentence is talking about changing trends and states that a close watch is to be kept on global energy prices as they keep on changing rapidly due to the heightened political tensions.

Now when you have recognized the answer there is no need to go on the next option but to be on the safer side you can check the last option also in the same manner as above

So in this manner it becomes very easy to solve the one-word substitution questions without memorising a long list of words.

Read our post on passage completion.

Aditya Anand
Aditya is 93.1% sure that he knows Japanese. We think he speaks Japanese in Bhojpuri accent.

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