Mock Test 8 by CLATalogue and CLATapult for CLAT 2020
Mock Test 8 by CLATalogue and CLATapult for CLAT 2020
I. The first decade of the 21st century heralded two innovative technologies: the smartphone and tablet computer. Despite the fact that the devices surpassed known technological boundaries during the same time period, they were each fundamentally unique. However, in 2011, as science continued to advance, it appeared that the two devices would overlap in both functionality and purpose.
The purpose of each tool was clear, since individuals increasingly used technology as a means of planning and organizational. But the sole intention of either device cannot be explained in terms of management capabilities alone. After all, personal digital assistants with planning software existed long before the introduction of either the smartphone or the tablet computer. Moreover, personal digital assistants even seemed preferred by many, despite a greater flexibility and ease of use associated with newer devices. So then why did individuals remain loyal to older technologies and not adopt the newer ones? Perhaps, before it became clear that these newer technologies were not simply a fad, individuals felt that purchasing a smartphone or tablet computer was a waste of time and money.
Q.1. According to the second paragraph, the delay in adoption of new technologies is most likely attributed to which of the following?
Technologies already existed that performed similar organizational tasks.
The functionality and purpose of the smartphone and tablet computer were not unique in nature.
Individuals believed that antiquated approaches to scheduling were more beneficial than those afforded by newer technologies.
Individuals were hesitant to risk both time and money on possibly transient technologies.
Q.2. The author supports the claim that the sole intention of either device cannot be explained in terms of management capabilities alone by implying which of the following?
There is no evidence that the functionality of smartphone and tablet computers was beneficial to users.
Individuals were more interested in capabilities other than scheduling applications in the smartphone and tablet computer.
Previous technologies, such as the personal data assistant, had already implemented software similar to that found in the smartphone and tablet computer
Experts praised the new devices in an attempt to increase the adoption rate of both the smartphone and tablet computer in society
Q.3. What is the purpose of the second paragraph?
To point out an apparent inconsistency and give a reason for the same
To show why tablets were a technological failure
To assess the effect of new technological developments on society
To prove how every new development will be met with unfavourable responses
Q.4. The author uses the phrase 'newer technologies were not simply a fad' to show that
Consumers were slow to understand that such technological advancements were not actually beneficial.
Consumers would not ever believe that these gadgets could actually be of help
The consumers would buy them only after the price of the products decreased
The consumers wrongly assumed that the gadgets had nothing new to contribute
Q.5. The author conclusively believed that:
Smartphones and tablets both accomplished the same function
Smartphones are more convenient to use than tablets
Tablets were more convenient to use than their predecessors
Both devices would soon be redundant
II. When we turn to the differences in outlook between Gandhi and Tagore in respect of their approaches to science and technology, we have to bear in mind that these were far from being static. At some points of time, there is clearly a confrontation between two contrary approaches. We have seen that in the debate on the implications of the Bihar earthquake in 1934 in Gandhi's pronouncements, there is an inherent theodicy as distinct from Tagore's rejection of any explanation in terms of divine intervention in physical phenomena. Again, in the twenties, in the debate on the charkha, there is a similar confrontation. Tagore contended that the gifts of modern technology or science must not be judged by criteria which are irrational or alien to science. "Where Mahatma Gandhi has declared war against the tyranny of the machine which is oppressing the whole world, we are all enrolled under his banner." But Tagore objected to the "magical formula that foreign cloth is impure" for it was not part of the language of science.
As we have seen earlier, he was critical of moral dictats in discourse that properly belongs to "economic science", or else people would be driven "from one injunction to another", without applying the test of reason, out of "the terrible habit of obeying orders". To Gandhi, on the other hand, the test of morality was supreme. This was his cardinal point, even in his earlier writings. "I have ventured utterly to condemn modern civilization because I hold that the spirit of it is evil. It is possible to show that some of its incidents are good, but I have examined the tendency in the scale of ethics…"
Q.6. If Gandhi made a moralistic assessment of industrialisation, Tagore’s view was:
Q.7.What did Tagore oppose?
Gandhi's brand of nationalism
The practice of using the charkha
Gandhi assigning a value judgement on western practices
The impurity of the machine-made cloth
Q.8. According to the passage what did Gandhi express his discontent towards?
Western ideology that tempered the nationalist movement
Modern technology that was morally corrupt
Modern technology that was factious
India being unprepared to embrace modern technology
Q.9. What did Gandhi believe caused the Bihar earthquake?
Practising faulty nationalism
Excessive scientific advancement
Q.10. What is the primary purpose of the passage?
To show how one idea of nationalism is better than the other
To throw light upon two perspectives on the same issues
To establish Gandhi and Tagore as rivals
To give examples of different strands of pre-Independence nationalism
Directions (1-10): Study the following pie - charts carefully and answer the questions given below:
Percentage breakup of the number of children in five different villages and break up of children Attending school from those villages