Mock Questions on Legal Reasoning for CLAT 2020

Mock Questions on Legal Reasoning for CLAT 2020

 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow-  ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ 

Passage I

After the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have diverted their often inadequate public health infrastructure to combating the novel coronavirus. However, beneath the surface, a global human rights crisis looms large in the form of an unprecedented threat to reproductive rights. The UN Population Fund has warned that the pandemic has “severely disrupted access to life-saving sexual and reproductive health services”; Human Rights Watch has flagged the impact that the ongoing crisis could have on abortion access and maternal care. To mitigate this threat, WHO has urged governments to treat abortion as an essential healthcare service.

In countries with no legal impediments to abortion, the threat manifests in the form of shortage of contraceptives and medicines, strained medical facilities and dwindling personal incomes. In countries like the US, where abortion is a contested issue, several states have attempted on the anti-choice side of the abortion debate to restrict abortion access in the shadow of the pandemic by declaring it a non-essential medical procedure.​​ 

In India, the nationwide lockdown to flatten the COVID-19 curve has been followed by reports of increasing domestic violence, mirroring the global trend, and which UN Women has called a “shadow pandemic”. This places women at an increased risk of unwanted pregnancies with fewer means to assert their bodily autonomy. There is a pre-existing issue with contraception access, especially in rural areas, which could become aggravated as public health workers responsible for distributing contraceptives are engaged with COVID-19 issues. Further, disruptions in pharmaceutical supply chains are likely to impact the availability of contraceptive methods and medical abortion drugs.​​ A public health crisis of this scale renders invisible the rights of those already at the margins. Reports have begun to emerge of women struggling to access abortion services during the lockdown even though the health ministry has classified abortion as an essential service. Even otherwise, India has a poor record in sexual and reproductive health services.

Despite the relatively liberal medical termination of pregnancy laws, women face barriers in abortion access. The recent amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 were meant to remedy some longstanding lacunae in the law, but the pandemic threatens to undo all progress on this front.

Even after the lockdown lifts, normalcy may not immediately return, with physical distancing norms, movement restrictions, increased burden on public health systems, and supply chain issues expected to continue. Hence, ensuring sexual and reproductive health must be an integral part of the government’s immediate response strategy. Relegating it as a problem for another day could have cascading effects not only on reproductive health but also on female well-being and empowerment. It could cause immeasurable damage to the progress that India has made in meeting the sustainable development goal of gender equality. Reproductive rights are inalienable and have legitimate demands on public resources even during, and especially during a crisis.

Extracted with edits from:​​ https://thewire.in/health/covid-19-pandemic-women-reproductive-rights-abortion-access​​  by​​ The Wire,​​ May 2020​​ ​​  ​​​​  ​​​​ 

1.​​ The recent amendments in the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 are-​​ ​​ ​​ 

(a)​​ sufficient​​ to tackle​​ the health issues arising​​ out of​​ the Covid-19 pandemic​​ 

(b)​​ insufficient to tackle the health issues arising out of the Covid-19 pandemic​​ 

(c)​​ Can’t say

(d) None of the above​​ 

 

2.​​ The phrase “attempted on the anti-choice side of the abortion debate” means that-​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ 

(a)​​ the US States are supporting the practice of abortion​​ 

(b)​​ the US States are opposing the practice of abortion​​ 

(c)​​ the US States are neutral towards the practice of abortion​​ 

(d)​​ Depends​​ on the discretion of the trial court​​ ​​ ​​ 

 

3.​​ Struggle of the Indian women in accessing abortion services during lockdown period indicates-​​ ​​  ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ 

(a)​​ lack of awareness​​ ​​ ​​ 

(b)​​ lack of proper implementation​​ ​​ ​​ 

(c)​​ either​​ (a)​​ or​​ (b)​​ ​​ 

(d) None​​ of the above

 

4.​​ The phrase “relegating it as a problem for another day” means-​​ ​​ ​​ 

(a)​​ fixing a particular day for finding solutions to the problem

(b)​​ giving undue importance to the problem

(c)​​ not giving due importance to the problem

(d)​​ None of the above​​ ​​ 

 

5.​​ The​​ given passage​​ does not​​ touch upon the issue of-

(a)​​ domestic violence​​  ​​​​ ​​ ​​ 

(b)​​ abortion​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ 

(c)​​ spread of Covid-19​​ ​​ 

(d) mental health​​ ​​ ​​ 

 

Passage II​​ 

Disclosures about corruption and venality in the higher echelons of the judicial and executive branches have snowballed into a major controversy. This must now pave the way for urgent reforms in the judiciary. Allegations levelled by former Supreme Court judge Justice Markandey Katju — against three past chief justices of India and the PMO under UPA — have reverberated in Parliament, prompting the Narendra Modi government to declare that improving the system of appointment of judges is imperative. This is indeed the case, but alongside the working of the judiciary must also be significantly speeded up.

The disclosures strike a hammer blow at the strongest argument made in favour of continuing today’s clubby and opaque ‘collegium’ system for appointment of judges — that it preserves judicial independence. They should spur the government to swiftly institute long-term reforms that will not only cleanse the taint of corruption eating away into the vitals of an institution that survives on public trust, but also undertake a slew of interlinked measures to make delivery of justice fast, effective and equitable. The government must appoint, after suitably amending the 2013 Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, a national judicial commission (NJC) which will appoint judges for superior courts after a thorough vetting procedure.

NJC should include representatives from the judiciary, executive, legislature, eminent jurists and legal academics from civil society, suitably weighted to preserve judicial independence. Deliberations of the commission should be recorded and available for public review. NJC should also be empowered to examine and investigate instances of misdemeanours, corruption and malfeasance and order appropriate punishment. This will ensure that the judiciary is not exempt from the requirement of accountability.

Alongside institutional reforms, efforts must be made to modernise and streamline the judiciary — bottom up — so that lower and higher courts run efficiently and professionally. For this, the many vacancies of judges at all levels must be filled and the staggering 31 million cases in backlog cleared within a stipulated timeframe. Legal records should be digitised to make them easily accessible. Long seasonal vacations should be abolished and courts should function round the year. It should not be lost on either the government or judiciary that the real test of judicial performance is when courts serve to the general satisfaction of the public.

 

Extracted with edits from:​​ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/toi-editorials/the-katju-moment-use-it-to-push-through-judicial-reforms-that-are-essential-for-better-governance/​​  by​​ The​​ Times of India,​​ July​​ 2014​​ ​​  ​​​​  ​​​​ 

1.​​ The passage suggests that the allegations raised by Justice Katju against other judges pertained to-​​ ​​ 

(a)​​ corruption​​ 

(b)​​ conduct​​ of court proceedings​​ in improper manner​​ 

(c)​​ disposal of very few​​ cases during their entire period of service​​ 

(d)​​ None of the above​​ ​​ ​​ 

 

2.​​ The given passage does not talk about corruption in the-​​ 

(a)​​ legislature​​ ​​ 

(b)​​ judiciary​​ 

(c) executive​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​  ​​​​ ​​ 

(d)​​ None of the above​​ 

 

3.​​ The given passage touches upon the issues of-​​ ​​ ​​ 

(a)​​ corruption in the judiciary​​ 

(b)​​ modernization of the judiciary​​ 

(c)​​ appointment of judges​​ 

(d)​​ All of the above​​ 

 

4.​​ From the passage, it can be inferred that the author supports increased stakeholder participation in the appointment of judges. Whether such inference is-

(a)​​ Correct

(b)​​ Wrong ​​​​ ​​ ​​ 

(c)​​ Highly wrong​​ ​​ ​​ 

(d) Can’t say​​ 

 

5.​​ The author supports speedier working of the judiciary through-

(a)​​ reduction of designated holidays

(b)​​ reduction in​​ the vacancies of judges​​ 

(c)​​ change in the​​ mode of appointment of judges​​ 

(d)​​ Both (a) and (b)​​ ​​ 

 

Answer key with explanations  ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ 

Passage I

Question 1 - Option (b) is the correct answer.

Explanation​​ ​​ The​​ line “but the pandemic threatens to undo all progress on this front” indicates that option (b) is correct.​​ 

 

Question 2 - Option (b) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation​​ ​​ The​​ line “to restrict abortion access in the shadow of the pandemic....” indicates that option (b) is correct.​​ 

 

Question 3 - Option​​ (b) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation​​ ​​ The​​ passage states that despite declaration of abortion as an essential health service in India, abortion services are still not easily accessible which indicates​​ a​​ lack of implementation. ​​  ​​​​ 

 

Question 4 – Option (c) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation​​ ​​ The​​ line “could have cascading effects not only on reproductive health but also....​​ indicates that option (c) is correct.​​ 

 

Question 5​​ ​​ Option (d) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation –​​ A plain reading of the given passage indicates that option (d) is correct.​​ 

 

Passage II

Question 1 - Option (a) is the correct answer.

Explanation​​ ​​ The​​ first line of the passage indicates that option (a) is correct.​​ ​​ 

 

Question 2 - Option​​ (a) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation​​ ​​ A plain reading of the passage indicates that option (a) is correct.​​ ​​ 

 

Question 3 - Option (d) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation​​ ​​ A plain reading of the passage indicates that option (d) is correct.

 

Question 4 – Option (a) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation –​​ The​​ fact that the author wants NJC to include persons from different fields​​ and deliberations of the commission to be open to public review​​ indicates that option (a) is correct.​​ 

 

Question 5​​ ​​ Option (d) is the correct answer.​​ 

Explanation -​​ The​​ last paragraph of the given passage indicates that option (d) is correct. Changing the mode of appointment of judges does not guarantee speedier working of the judiciary.​​ ​​ ​​ 

 

Take our test on offences against property under ipc here.

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Read CLATapult’s post on offer and acceptance here. Also, try their mocks for more legal reasoning practice questions

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