HomeLogical ReasoningLogical Reasoning: Analogy for CLAT 2020

Logical Reasoning: Analogy for CLAT 2020

Logical Reasoning: Analogy for CLAT 2020

ANALOGY

The article gives an idea about what to expect in the questions relating to analogy and how to solve them.

The new pattern of the examination includes comprehensions followed by the questions relating to that particular paragraph, but it’s advisable that the concept of the said topics are understood not in light of the comprehension format but as a standalone subject-matter.

Only then a fair understanding and reasoning can be developed by the candidate and it will provide with the edge while solving even the comprehension based questions.

What is analogy?

Analogy is a form of reasoning in which a similarity between two or more things is inferred from a known relationship between them.

As there can be more than one relationship between two objects, it is essential to understand which relationship the examiner wants the candidate to locate in a particular question.

Analogical Argument: Analogical arguments vary greatly in subject matter, strength and logical structure. It is necessary to go through lots of examples to understand the relationships between them better.

Example 1- Rectangles and boxes

Suppose that you have establishes that of all rectangles with a fixed perimeter, the square has the maximum area. By analogy, you conjecture that all boxes with a fixed surface area, the cube have maximum volume.

In simpler terms and more relevant to the pattern of the examination, we can look into easier forms of analogies-

Example 2- Ocean: island

The pair can have the following possible relationships:

  1. a) The first surrounding the other
  2. b) The first a place to swim; the second to walk
  3. c) The second being very small in comparison to the first.
  4. d) Specific names of ocean and island located in it.

On the basis of these relationships, we can liken this pair to the following pairs respectively

  1. a) Protoplasm : Nucleus
  2. b) Water : Soil
  3. c) Desert : Oasis
  4. d) Pacific : Greenland

 Example 3 – Captain : Team :: Director : ?

  1. a) Employee
  2. b) Customer
  3. c) Organization
  4. d) Union

The answer most relevant will be option (c). As captain is the head of the team, similarly a director is the head of the organization.

Example 4 – Gram : Weight :: Centimetre : ?

  1. a) Volume
  2. b) Area
  3. c) Sound
  4. d) Length

Answer (d) – the relationship mentioned is of the “ Measurements” . As gram is the unit of weight, similarly centimetre is the unit of length.

Example 5 – Dog : Rabies :: Mosquito : ?

  1. a) Plague
  2. b) Death
  3. c) Malaria
  4. d) Sting

Answer (c) – The relationship is of cause and effect, The first causes the second. Here, the bite of the first causes the second.

Example 6- Fog : Visibility :: AIDS : ?

  1. a) Health
  2. b) Resistance
  3. c) Virus
  4. d) Death

Answer (b)  – Although at first more than one options might seem relevant but to understand it better we again need to identify the cause and effect. Like, what does the fog do? it lowers the visibility.

It impairs our capacity to see. Likewise, although AIDS is a virus and may sometimes lead to the death of the patient, what does it actually do? The answer is that impairs the resistance of the human body and makes it more susceptible to more health-related issues.

Example 7- Sword : Slaughter :: Scalpel : ?

  1. a) Murder
  2. b) Stab
  3. c) Surgery
  4. d) Chopping

Answer (c) – The Second denoted the purpose for which the first is used.

Example 8- Prose : Writing :: Lisp : ?

  1. a) Reading
  2. b) Music
  3. c) Speech
  4. d) Drawing

Answer (C) – First is a type of second.

Certain very commonly used relationships are given below, it is to be noted that the lists are not exhaustive and a cap can never be put on what kind of questions to expect in the examination.

These categories can only lay down a foundation, the key to be better at understanding relationships is to read a lot!

INDIVIDUALS AND GROUP

PoemsAnthology
JudgesBench
DirectorsBoard
FlowersBouquet
FlagsBunting
TravellersCaravan
MountainsRange
WorshippersCongregation
ShipsFleet
BoatsFlotilla
IslandCluster
CattleHerd
BeesHive
PuppiesLitter
PeacocksMuster
RaysPencil
LionsPride
PearlsString
LiesTissue
MonkeysTroop
OwlsParliament

ANIMALS AND YOUNG ONES

BoarPorkling
Bear/tiger/wolf/foxCub
Deer/StagFawn
DogPuppy
FrogTadpole
CatKitten
DuckDuckling
SwanCygnet
SheepLamb
LionWhelp
GooseGosling
HorseColt/foal/filly
GoatKid
HareLeveret
Cow/ElephantCalf
EagleEaglet

INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENT

LactometerPurity of milk
ManometerPressure of gas
AltimeterAltitudes
AmmeterCurrent
BalanceMass
ViscometerMeasure voltage
SeismographEarthquakes
Rain gaugeRain
ScaleLength
BarometerAtmospheric pressure
HydrometerIntensity of liquid
CalorimeterHeat
HygrometerHumidity
ThermometerTemperature
OdometerSpeed of vehicles

 

WORD AND INTENSITY

AngerFury, Rage
PrayerDevotion
MistakeBlunder
RefuseDeny
MoneyFortune
WishDesire
WeatherClimate
MoneyFortune
CrimeSin
RayLight
Battlewar

 

STUDY AND TOPICS

OrnithologyBirds
PathologyDiseases
ConchologyShells
NephrologyKidney
EthnologyHuman race
HaematologyBlood
AeronauticsFlights
AgrostologyGrasses
Craniology Skull
OpticsLight
MycologyFungus
BotanyPlants
PalaeontologyFossil
PedologySoil
TaxonomyClassification
Semanticslanguages
DactylographyFingerprints
OrographyMountains
HistologyTissues
NumismanticsCoins
SeismologyEarthquakes

LIVING THINGS AND MOVEMENTS

BearsLumber
BullsRun
CatsSteal
CowsWander
DucksWaddle
HorsesGallop, trot
LambsFrisk
LarksSoar
LionsProwl
MonkeysClimb
MiceScamper
MenWalk
RabbitsLeap
Wolveslope

ANIMALS AND CRIES

CatsMew
SnakesHiss
DucksQuack
OwlsHoot
ElephantsTrumpet
LionsRoar
GeeseCrackle
LarksWarble
HorseNeigh
LambsBleat

OBJECTS AND SOUND

AeroplanesZoom
BellsPeal, ring
ClocksTick
HornsToot
DishesRattle
ShoesCreak
LeavesRustle
StreamPurls
WavesRipple
FlagsFlutter
CoinsClink/jingle
RainDrips, patters
GunsBoom, roar

 

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Aditya Anand
Aditya is 93.1% sure that he knows Japanese. We think he speaks Japanese in Bhojpuri accent.

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