Logical Reasoning: Analogy for CLAT 2020
The article gives an idea about what to expect in the questions relating to analogy and how to solve them.
The new pattern of the examination includes comprehensions followed by the questions relating to that particular paragraph, but it’s advisable that the concept of the said topics are understood not in light of the comprehension format but as a standalone subject-matter.
Only then a fair understanding and reasoning can be developed by the candidate and it will provide with the edge while solving even the comprehension based questions.
What is analogy?
Analogy is a form of reasoning in which a similarity between two or more things is inferred from a known relationship between them.
As there can be more than one relationship between two objects, it is essential to understand which relationship the examiner wants the candidate to locate in a particular question.
Analogical Argument: Analogical arguments vary greatly in subject matter, strength and logical structure. It is necessary to go through lots of examples to understand the relationships between them better.
Example 1- Rectangles and boxes
Suppose that you have establishes that of all rectangles with a fixed perimeter, the square has the maximum area. By analogy, you conjecture that all boxes with a fixed surface area, the cube have maximum volume.
In simpler terms and more relevant to the pattern of the examination, we can look into easier forms of analogies-
Example 2- Ocean: island
The pair can have the following possible relationships:
- a) The first surrounding the other
- b) The first a place to swim; the second to walk
- c) The second being very small in comparison to the first.
- d) Specific names of ocean and island located in it.
On the basis of these relationships, we can liken this pair to the following pairs respectively
- a) Protoplasm : Nucleus
- b) Water : Soil
- c) Desert : Oasis
- d) Pacific : Greenland
Example 3 – Captain : Team :: Director : ?
- a) Employee
- b) Customer
- c) Organization
- d) Union
The answer most relevant will be option (c). As captain is the head of the team, similarly a director is the head of the organization.
Example 4 – Gram : Weight :: Centimetre : ?
- a) Volume
- b) Area
- c) Sound
- d) Length
Answer (d) – the relationship mentioned is of the “ Measurements” . As gram is the unit of weight, similarly centimetre is the unit of length.
Example 5 – Dog : Rabies :: Mosquito : ?
- a) Plague
- b) Death
- c) Malaria
- d) Sting
Answer (c) – The relationship is of cause and effect, The first causes the second. Here, the bite of the first causes the second.
Example 6- Fog : Visibility :: AIDS : ?
- a) Health
- b) Resistance
- c) Virus
- d) Death
Answer (b) – Although at first more than one options might seem relevant but to understand it better we again need to identify the cause and effect. Like, what does the fog do? it lowers the visibility.
It impairs our capacity to see. Likewise, although AIDS is a virus and may sometimes lead to the death of the patient, what does it actually do? The answer is that impairs the resistance of the human body and makes it more susceptible to more health-related issues.
Example 7- Sword : Slaughter :: Scalpel : ?
- a) Murder
- b) Stab
- c) Surgery
- d) Chopping
Answer (c) – The Second denoted the purpose for which the first is used.
Example 8- Prose : Writing :: Lisp : ?
- a) Reading
- b) Music
- c) Speech
- d) Drawing
Answer (C) – First is a type of second.
Certain very commonly used relationships are given below, it is to be noted that the lists are not exhaustive and a cap can never be put on what kind of questions to expect in the examination.
These categories can only lay down a foundation, the key to be better at understanding relationships is to read a lot!
INDIVIDUALS AND GROUP
ANIMALS AND YOUNG ONES
INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENT
|Lactometer||Purity of milk|
|Manometer||Pressure of gas|
|Hydrometer||Intensity of liquid|
|Odometer||Speed of vehicles|
WORD AND INTENSITY
STUDY AND TOPICS
LIVING THINGS AND MOVEMENTS
ANIMALS AND CRIES
OBJECTS AND SOUND