Learn to Solve Syllogism for CLAT UG

Learn to Solve Syllogism for CLAT UG

As a law student, it is very important for you to think in a deductive manner as it is from the​​ deductions you reach because of evidence, witness and circumstances that helps you reach a conclusion and also prove your point in the Court.​​ Syllogism is a part of deductive reasoning that is most convininiently solved by using Venn Diagrams. As per the syllabus given by Consortium of NLUs, Syllogism falls in the section of Reasoning and it is an area which is very much scoring. Deductive reasoning is basically when you​​ use one or more statements to reach a logical conclusion. The conclusion drawn must not be from your knowledge of the outside world but only from the information given, otherwise the conclusion does not follow. ​​ Syllogism, in simple terms is the logical argument that you reach in conclusion of the two statements given. For instance:

All cats are mice. Some cats are red.

We can conclude that some cats are not red.​​ 

We can also conclude that some mice are not red.

Always remember no matter how unreal and how absurd the subject and their relations are, it​​ shouldn’t​​ affect your reasoning abilities to just treat them as given in the question. As in the example above, the cats and mice were somehow equated, we know that is not true in the real World but you will have to believe it as given in the​​ question. Any application of your own knowledge of the outside world will impair your ability to reach the correct conclusion.​​ To get used to solving these questions quickly, there is no straitjacket formula and all reliance will have to be placed upon the​​ Practice.

Although Syllogisms can be solved by various methods but the most used method is Venn Diagrams. Venn diagram draws logical relation between the given subjects and the overlapping in the diagram helps us reach the logical conclusion. For instance:

All houses are beautiful structures. Some beautiful houses have lawn.​​ 

Here, it can logically be concluded that all beautiful structures do not have lawn. Another logical conclusion would be that some beautiful structures have lawn.​​ 

To avoid any kind of mistakes, read each statement one by one. If you find any difficulty dealing with the names of the subject , you can also name the subjects as A and B. ​​ Pay​​ attention to the following 3 basic situations given but the list is not exhaustive and there can be many more situations.

  • If a​​ statement​​ says that​​ “All​​ A​​ are B. It means that A is a subset of B. Never conclude it as All B’s are A. ​​ 

  • If​​ a statement says that​​ “No​​ A is B.”, it​​ means that A and B are​​ exclusive of each other and that there​​ is​​ no overlapping.​​ 

  • If the statement​​ says​​ that “Some A are​​ B.”.​​ It​​ would be logical to conclude that there will be some intersection and overlapping and the logical conclusion would be​​ “All​​ A​​ are not B​​ and All B are not A.

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