How to Draw Inference from a Passage in Logical Reasoning for CLAT 2020

This section on syllogism deals with the question which does not follow the usual pattern. In foregoing topics, there was definiteness about the conclusions which were either definitely true or false.

In other words, those where category type and assume based syllogism. There was no scope for the probability of truthfulness and falsity of the Conclusions. On the contrary, here are the conclusions which also take into consideration the probability factor. The conclusions drawn maybe either probably false or probably true.

This particular section of reasoning demands a thorough reading of a passage with a clear understanding of the subject and then judging the truth of certain pre-given statements based upon your vision of understanding but that should match the questioner’s vision of understanding too.

Candidate must note that it is very important for them to possess logical skill comprehension capacity and the ability for interpretation. They must be skilful enough to comprehend the full implications of passage and arrive at the correct answer from the given options. It is expected of the students to acquire as much knowledge as possible off phrasal verbs vocabulary and nuances of the English language.

This process can be made simpler by using the correct way of logical interpretation of the passage. Any statement that seems to be probably true should not be marked with True. Off course the idea of judging the statements from the given passage can be well understood with the number of practice sessions.

A student must note that all these conclusions are to be arrived at in the light of what has been discussed in the passage.

This is the topic where examiner wants to check once reading skill and the skill to observe or to understand anything. We can say that they want to check the concentration power.

Important Points to remember:

In some cases, the inference is easily evaluated with the help of certain keywords. Keywords indicate the truth of the given conclusion.

Here are some example of search keywords are – all, some, none, never, always, sometimes, must be, may be, might be, although,  nevertheless, despite, despite, etc.

Students get confused between the following choices:

  • Definitely false or probably false
  • Definitely true or probably true
  • Data inadequate or probably true
  • Data inadequate or probably false

Whenever you come to some answer, you reach there by using the following points.

  • Something that is given in the passage is taken as definitely true.
  • If related data or information is missing or unavailable in the passage it should be taken as data inadequate.
  • Some factors are true regarding passage but some based on assumption can be considered as probably true.
  • If related information is totally false then it should be taken as definitely false.
  • If related information is based upon a false assumption or based on the just opposite assumption it should be taken as probably false.

Candidate should keep in mind that they should not think or imagine beyond the information given in the passage.

Examples

A passage is given below and followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. Candidates have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon the degree of its truth and false.

A candidate is required to mark the answer in the following ways.

  1. If the Conclusion/inference is definitely true.
  2. If the Conclusion/ inference is probably true, though not definitely true.
  3. If the data are inadequate. (if the conclusion is neither true or false because the data given in the passage are inadequate )
  4. If the Conclusion/inference is probably false, though not definitely false.
  5. If the Conclusion/inference is definitely false. ( if cannot be drawn from the given facts or contradicts the given facts)

1.Passage: Privatisation is no Panacea when it comes to education. Nor can high-cost intervention at the territory stage produce quality talent. The backbone of quality education is primary schooling. And improving that is not just the question of funding.

The government has taken some steps to improve the situation by increasing the percentage of allocation in the budget. But it has done precious little to increase the efficiency of public spending in education.

For that is a political and administrative task. Teachers who do not turn up to teach at rural schools (absenteeism is about 30% according to one survey )and teachers who are not equipped are motivated to teach but continue in service with the challenge are part of India’s Socio-Political reality.

Q.1 The government has not done enough to improve the quality of Secondary Education.

Q.2 Our government has been on unsuccessful in achieving the desired result in education.

Q.3 More funds in the budget for primary education will substantially improve the quality of education.

Q.4 Quality of education is ensured in the private educational institution in India.

Q.5 Motivating the primary school teachers and improving attendance of those teachers are major challenges in India.

Solutions

Soln.1 – b. Though not enough but the government has done at least a little to improve so it is probably true.

Soln.2 – d. The inference is probably false it is not mentioned with the facts in the passage.

Soln.3 – d. It will not improve the situation substantially though will up to some extent, so it is probably false.

Soln.4 – e. “ privatisation is a no Panacea when it comes to education.” Quality education is not insured in all the private institutions in India. It is definitely false.

Soln.5 – b. The inference is probably true. Refer to the last line of passage

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