General Knowledge for CLAT 2021: Five Year Plans
FIVE YEAR PLAN – INDIA
1. The concept of Economic planning in India was derived from Russia (then USSR)
2. India has had 12 five year plans up until now.
3. The first five-year plan was launched in 1951.
4. The formation of further five-year plans was suspended by the NDA Government in 2017.
5. 12th Five-year plan was the last five-year plan of India.
6. The decades-old five-year plan is now replaced with the new three-year action plan, which will be a part of the seven-year strategy paper and 15-year vision document.
7. The Niti-Aayog, which replaced the planning commission had launched a three-year action plan on April 1, 2017, which is valid ill 2020.
FIRST PLAN (1951-1956)
> It was based on Ahasrrod-Domar Model
> community Development program was launched in 1952
> emphasized on agriculture, price stability, power and transport.
> it was more than a success, because of good harvest in the last two years
SECOND PLAN (1956-1961)
> Also called Mahalanobis Plan after its chief architect
> Its objective was Rapid industrialization
> Advocated huge imports which led to emptying of the funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon.
> During this plan, price level increased by 30% against the decline of 13% during the first plan.
THIRD PLAN (1961-1966)
> At its conception time, it was felt that the Indian economy has entered a take-off stage, therefore, its aim was to make India a ‘self-reliant’, and ‘self-generating’ economy.
> It was realised from the experience of the first two plans that agriculture should be given the top priority to suffice the requirement of export and industry.
> Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortune, viz. Chinese aggression (1962), Indo-Pak War (1965), Severest drought in 100 years (1965-1966).
THREE ANNUAL PLANS
>The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the annual plans
> During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving widespread distribution oh High Yielding varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide-over the crisis in agricultural production.
> During the annual plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the third year plan, making way for planned growth.
FOURTH PLAN (1969-1974)
> Main emphasis on agriculture’s growth rate so that chai reaction can start.
> Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years were a failure because of poor monsoon.
> Had to take the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo-Pak war.
FIFTH PLAN (1974-1979)
> Fifth plan prepared and launched by D.D.Dhar, Proposed to achieve two main objectives viz, ‘removal of poverty’ ( Garibi Hatao) and ‘attainment of self-reliance’, through the promotion of high rate of growth, better distribution of income and very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings.
>The plan was terminated in 1978 ( instead of 1979) when Janta Govt. came to power.
ROLLING PLAN (1978-1979)
> There were two sixth plans. One by Janta Govt. (for 78-83) which was in operation for two years only and the other was Congress Govt. when it returned to power in 1980.
SIXTH PLAN (1980-1985)
> Objective – increase in national income, modernization of technology, ensuring a continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning, etc.
SEVENTH PLAN (1985-1990)
> The seventh plan emphasised policies and programs which aimed at the rapid growth in food grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.
> It was a great success, the economy recorded a 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%
EIGHTH PLAN (1992-1997)
> The eights plan was postponed by two years because of political upheavals at the centre and it was launched after worsening balance of payment position and inflation during 1990-1991
> The plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6%
> Some of the main economic performances during eighth plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth of agriculture and allied sector, and manufacturing sector, growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit.
NINTH PLAN (1997-2002)
> It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: Quality of life, generation of productive employment, regional balance and self-reliance.
> To Achieve the growth of GDP@ 8%
> Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 10% by 2012.
> Providing gainful high-quality employment to the addition to the labour force over the tenth plan period.
> Universal Access to primary education by 2007.
> Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50%by 2007
> Reduction in decade rate of population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2%
> Increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012
> Reduction of infant mortality rate to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and 28 by 2012
> Increase in forest and tree cover to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012
> All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water by 2012
> Cleaning of all major polluted rivers by 2007 and other notified stretches by 2012.
Income & poverty in India.
> Accelerate growth rate of GDP from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17
> Increase agricultural GDP growth rate to 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits
> Creation 70 million new work opportunities
> Reduce educated unemployment to below 5%
> Raise the real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20%
> Reduce the headcount ratio of consumption poverty by 10% points
11th Five Year Plan Education
> Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 20% by 2011-12.
> Develop minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and by regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality.
> Increase literacy rate for a person of age 7 years or more to 85%
> Lower gender gap in literacy to 10% points
> Increase the percentage in of each cohort going to higher education from the present 10%to 15% by end of the 11th plan
11th Five Year Plan Health
>Reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) to 28 and mortality ration (MMR) to 1 per 1000vlive births
>reduce total fertility rate to2.1.
> Provide clean drinking water for all by 2009 and ensure that there are no slip–backs by the end of 11th plan.
> Reduce malnutrition among children of age group 0-3 to half its present level.
> Reduce anaemia among women and girls by 50%by the end of the 11th plan.
Women and Children
> Raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-2017
> Ensure that at least 33 percent of the direct and indirect beneficiaries of all government schemes are women and girl children.
>Ensure that all children enjoy a safe childhood, without any compulsion to work.
11th Five Year Plan Infrastructure.
> Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL Households by 2009 and round-the-clock power by the end of the plan.
> Ensure all-weather road connection to all habitation with population 1000 and above (500 in hilly and tribal areas) by 2009, and ensure coverage of all significant habitation by 2015.
> Connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broadband connectivity to all villages by 2012.
> Provide homestead sites to all by 2012 and step up the pace of house construction from rural poor to cover all the poor by 2016-17.
Environment in India
> Increase forest and tree cover by5 percentage points
> Attain WHO standards of air quality in all major cities by 2011-12
> Treat all urban wastewater by 2011 -12 to clean river waters.
> Increase energy efficiency by 20 percentage points by 2016-17.
TWELFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
Main theme – “faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth” with growth rate target 8.2%
> Poverty rate to be reduced by 10% than the rate at end of 11th plan.
> Agriculture Growth at 4%
> Mean year of schooling to Increase to 7 years.
> 20 lakh seats for each age bracket in higher education.
> End gender gap and social gap in school enrolment.
> Reduce IMR to 25; MMR to 1. Increase the sex ratio to 950.
> 40 Litres per capita per day drinking water to 50% of rural population; Nirmal Gram Status to 50% of all Gram Panchayats.
Environment and sustainability
> Increase green cover by 1 million hectare every year.
> 30,000 MW renewable energy during Five year period.
>Emission intensity of GDP to be reduced to 20-25% of 2005 levels by 2020.