English Practice Paper on Synonyms and Antonyms

English​​ Practice Paper on Synonyms and Antonyms

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/judicial-law/)

Judges’ educational, cultural and social backgrounds are closest to those of top state bureaucrats and government officials. Furthermore, in Ireland and many other states the government appoints judges to courts. Controversy can ensue from such practice because nominations become partisan battles. This can be seen when in the 1970s Thomas O’Higgins was appointed as a judge of the High court and the as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. As a former Fine Gael minister and two-time Presidential candidate, he was a highly politicised figure. The lack of independent selection procedures creates a political culture within courts and judges in turn become politicians. Yet, even having been politically appointed judges must gain the approval of the public and the government. To do this, judges must be tactical in their decision making.​​ To understand how judges make their decisions is crucial to understanding them as politicians. Ruth Bader Ginsburg claims that “legislative and executive officials act on behalf of the voters who placed them in office; judges​​ represent the law”.​​ This contrary to the notion that judges act politically to win the approval of the government and the public which can be examined with respect to both attitudinal and strategic approaches to judicial decisions.​​ The attitudinal approach states that judges’ decisions are based solely on their own ideological preferences. This approach is justified by the fact that judges are not electorally accountable and lack ambition for higher political office.​​ The strategic approach describes judges as economic actors who are forward-looking and have stable policy preferences. When making judgements they duly consider the reactions of the legislative, the executive and the public.​​ In a study of Supreme Court decisions, it was found that judges anticipate congressional action and act in accordance to it. The study also shows that judges’ ideologies do matter and that when the court is constrained the judges act strategically. This study suggests that it is a combination of both approaches that produce judgements. This contradicts Justice Ginsburg’s claim that judges’ decisions are rooted in the law and suggests that judges are politically motivated in their actions. Judges make decisions and hence make the law based on their vision of what the law should​​ be in conjunction with their understanding of what the public think the law should be. Their decisions are not rooted in objective, dispassionate analysis of the rules and facts. The way judges make decisions is further proof that they are politicians. The judgements are politically guided and have real political repercussions; the making of the law. Accordingly, judges are politicians.​​ The political power of the Supreme Court is clear when we consider the time, effort and resources the President expends on the nomination.​​ In France and Germany the making of public policy and the development of constitutional law are frequently interchangeable. In Israel the governments are preoccupied with securing and preserving their parliamentary coalitions. In this case the civil judiciary is the only body able to provide “rational objective policy-makers”.​​ The power that courts hold is politically decisive worldwide. This judicial power is also a political phenomenon. Politicians benefit from the existence of courts and from the judicialization of politics.

Question: identify the synonyms of the following words as mentioned in the passage:

  • Partisan

  • Receptive

  • Perusable

  • Unprejudiced

  • Adherent

Ans. d

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence “If the senator wants to get votes then he has to do lot of partisan favours.” The usage of the word depicts​​ strong supporter of a party, cause, or person. Therefore the option‘d’ is the answer.

  • Selection

  • Repudiation

  • Spurning

  • Excerpt

  • Abnegation

Ans. c

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence “He detailed the man’s selection of clothes and the contents of his medicine cabinet as he shaved.​​ The usage of the word depicts​​ the action or fact of carefully​​ choosing someone or something as being the best or most suitable. Therefore option ‘c’ is the answer.

  • Notion

  • Conception

  • Misapprehension​​ 

  • Concrete

  • Falsification​​ 

Ans. a​​ 

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence “children have different notions about the roles of their parents”.​​ The usage of the word depicts​​ a conception of or belief about something. Therefore option ‘a’ is the answer.

  • Approval​​ 

  • Endorsement​​ 

  • Veto

  • Condemnation

  • Dissent

Ans. a

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence “the roads schemes have been given approval.” The usage of word depicts​​ the feeling of having a positive opinion of something. Therefore option ‘a’ is the answer.

  • Real

  • obscure

  • unfeigned

  • delusive

  • concocted​​ 

Ans. b

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence “She claims a red headed young guy took real good care of her, fed her and let her play video games.” The usage of word depicts actually existing as a thing or occurring in fact; not imagined or supposed. Therefore option ‘b’ is the answer.

Passage 2

Source: (http://www.english-for-students.com/stories-for-students.html)

In 1997, an Indian – American, Kalpana Chawla - was part of the international crew aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle, Columbia, becoming the first woman born​​ in India to go into space. Sadly, the second mission in Columbia ended in tragedy.​​ In an unprecedented space tragedy, U.S. Space Shuttle Columbia, carrying India-born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla and six others, broke apart in flames as it streaked over Texas towards its landing strip on Saturday, 1 February 2003, killing all seven on board. The shuttle lost contact with NASA at about 9 a.m. (19.30 hrs 1ST) as it came in for landing. It was flying at an altitude of over 200,000 feet and​​ travelling​​ at over 20,000 km per hour when ground control lost contact with the shuttle.​​ Columbia had lifted off on 16 January 2003 from the Kennedy Space Center - Florida. It had stayed in orbit for 16 days and the seven-member crew conducted 80 experiments before it began its downward journey which ended in tragedy. This was Columbia’s 28th space flight and the shuttle was said to be good for 100 flights.​​ KALPANA Chawla said that she never dreamed as a child in Karnal that she would cross the frontiers of space. It was enough that her parents allowed her to attend engineering college after she graduated from Tagore School.​​ After a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering, against great opposition from her father, she went for a master’s degree to the United States of America. She later earned her Ph.D. in aerospace engineering. Kalpana Chawla was the first Indian-American woman astronaut to blast​​ off from the launch pad at Cape​​ Canaveral - Florida and participate in a successful mission in space. Her family from India cheered along with staff at the Kennedy Space Center as they watched the Columbia lift off.​​ Kalpana was born in Karnal – Haryana but was a naturalized U.S. citizen and married to flight instructor Jean-Pierre Harrison. Besides being an astronaut, she was licensed to fly single and multiengine land airplanes, single-engine seaplanes and gliders. She was also a certified flight instructor. After qualifying as a pilot, Kalpana began to consider another challenge…. applying to NASA’s space shuttle program. She was first hired as a research scientist at NASA. In 1994 she was selected by NASA for training as an astronaut.​​ When asked what it was like being a woman in her field she replied, “I really never, ever thought, while pursuing my studies or doing anything else that I was a woman or a person from a small city or a different country. I pretty much had my dreams like anyone else and I followed them. And people who were around me, fortunately, always encouraged me and said, ‘If that’s what you want to do, carry on’."​​ Kalpana’s first space mission in the space shuttle - Columbia was 15 days 16 hours and 34 minutes long. During this time she went around the earth 252 times​​ travelling​​ 10.45 million​​ kilometres! The crew included Japanese and a Ukrainian astronaut. The crew performed​​ experiments such as pollinating plants to observe food growth in space and tests for making stronger metals and faster computer chips - all for a price tag of about 56 million dollars.​​ On the Saturday night when the news about the Columbia disaster broke, there was shock and disbelief. The town of Karnal spent a sleepless night as thousands of households stayed glued to their television sets in the hope that Kalpana and the crew had somehow survived. A journalist wrote…She was a heroine. It takes enormous ability to become an astronaut. You need to know a lot about everything from biology to astrophysics to aeronautical engineering. In this age of super-specialization, you must have​​ encyclopaedic​​ knowledge to be an astronaut. Her achievement is awe-inspiring.

Question: identify the synonyms of the following words as mentioned in the passage:

  • enormous

  • miniature

  • teeny

  • minuscule

  • prodigious​​ 

Ans. d

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence ‘. It takes enormous ability to become an astronaut’. Enormous means prodigious thus option d is the answer

  • tragedy

  • boon

  • fortune

  • cataclysm​​ 

  • victory

Ans. c

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence ‘It had stayed in orbit for 16 days and the seven-member crew conducted 80 experiments before it began its downward journey which ended in tragedy.’ Tragedy means something bad thus option c is the answer

  • shock

  • composure

  • prostration​​ 

  • tranquillity

  • failure

Ans. b

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence ‘On the Saturday night when the news about the Columbia disaster broke, there was shock and disbelief’. Shock means trauma thus option b is the answer

  • control

  • clout​​ 

  • chaos

  • neglect

  • relinquishment​​ 

Ans. a

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence ‘It was flying at an altitude of over 200,000 feet and travelling at over 20,000 km per hour when ground control lost contact with the shuttle’. Control means to take hold of thus option a is the answer

  • single

  • wed

  • solitary

  • mingling

  • indefinite​​ 

Ans. b

Rationale: the word is used in the sentence ‘Besides being an astronaut, she was licensed to fly single and multiengine land airplanes, single-engine seaplanes and gliders’. Single means to be alone thus option b is the answer

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