English Practice Paper on One Word Meaning

English Practice Paper on One Word Meaning

Passage 1​​ 

Source: (https://epaper.thehindu.com/Home/Index)

The magnitude of protests across the U.S. – including in Washington, outside the White House; London; and elsewhere in Europe – has surprised many observers. This is not because the protests are not justified. It is the​​ unison​​ and spontaneity of the outcry that has​​ bewildered​​ many. A number of police assaults/killings in the past, such as of Rodney King (1991), Eric Garner (2014) and Corey Jones (2015), had triggered huge protests too, but these episodes evaporated from public memory quickly. Going by the volume and intensity of demonstrations against the police atrocity against Floyd, it looks like this incident has​​ evoked​​ universal disdain and will linger for a long, long time.​​ The demands from various quarters include complete dismantling of the police in many jurisdictions or total or partial defunding of the force. What is significant this time is that a large number of white people are participating in the marches against the police in the U.S. and U.K. This marks the difference in reaction to Floyd’s killing compared to past police misbehaviour. The average American is stoutly opposed to politicising the issue and has therefore lambasted President Donald Trump’s threat to use the military to quell the protests, especially destruction of public property. A New York Times senior editor has had to quit because he allowed the publication of an incendiary article by a Republican Senator endorsing the use of the military to stop the protests.​​ The widespread demand is to​​ overhaul​​ the system. This may sound a cliché and an impractical and emotional reaction to an isolated incident. Several such demands have been made in the past in many countries, including India, whenever these countries have been rocked by police excesses. Police Commissions have come and gone. Their ponderous recommendations have not brought about radical changes to the way we are policed. This is the reason why​​ discerning​​ police scholars and practitioners are cynical about the prospects of making the police behave in a more civilised manner.​​ When demanding reform, many communities are vague. When incidents such as the Floyd killing take place, people demand total abjuring of force by the police. When there is a spurt in crime or a particularly​​ horrific​​ incident such as the gang rape of a young student in Delhi in December​​ 2012, there is criticism that the police have become too soft. When there is a sharp increase in crime anywhere, the police are called ineffective. This is the dilemma that the average policeman faces in many parts of the world. When an imaginative Police Commissioner such as William Bratton in New York uses tough methods such as ‘stop and frisk’ to bring down crime, there is strident criticism that the mechanics was an exercise in profiling African-Americans. So, how does one strike a balance between stern and effective maintenance of order without violating human rights? How much is too much force is an eternal dilemma.

Question: Read the following passage and decide the suitable one word for the given meaning

  • simultaneous utterance of speech

  • profiling

  • unison

  • incendiary

  • strident

Ans. b

Rationale: unison means​​ coincidence in pitch of sounds or notes.​​ Thus option b​​ is the answer.

  • perplexed and confused

  • bewilder

  • vague

  • evoke

  • overhaul

Ans. a

Rationale: bewilder means perplexed and confused. Thus option a​​ is the answer.

  • take apart​​ in order to examine it​​ 

  • incendiary

  • strident

  • overhaul

  • profiling

Ans. c

Rationale: overhaul means​​ take apart (a piece of machinery or equipment) in order to examine it and repair it if necessary. Thus option c is the answer.

  • distinguish someone or something​​ with difficulty

  • radical

  • discern

  • frisk

  • disdain

Ans. b

Rationale: discern means​​ distinguish (someone or something) with difficulty by​​ sight or with the other senses. Thus option b​​ is the answer.

  • bring or recall​​ a feeling

  • stern

  • disdain

  • cynical

  • evoke

Ans. d

Rationale: evoke means​​ bring or recall (a feeling, memory, or image) to the conscious mind. Thus option d​​ is the answer.

 

Passage 2

Source: (https://epaper.thehindu.com/Home/Index)

There is a growing debate about what the​​ scarcity​​ and privation wrought by the COVID-19 crisis will mean for our response to climate change. The very language used to describe the effects of climate change is now being deployed, correctly, to shape our understanding of a disease-ravaged near future: poverty, the failure of markets, uncertainty, and an​​ overwhelmed​​ government. There are two main strands of opinion in this debate. The optimistic one sees this as a moment to remake our states and societies in a measured response. This includes directing economic packages to areas that increase our resilience to natural disasters and technologies that reduce our emissions. On the personal front, this could be an opportunity to reinforce sustainable behaviour — fewer morning commutes and less air travel, for example. The other strand is​​ direr, arguing that this will amount to a lost decade or two as our attention is focused on keeping the teetering ship of economy afloat. In this reading, present concerns will trump preparations for an uncertain future. Between these two strands there is consensus that we are at a critical juncture. What we do now will determine the flow of events decades into the future.​​ It has been two months since India’s lockdown, and we know enough to have a rational​​ conversation about our climate future. Perhaps the most important news relates to public and private debt. The government has raised its borrowing limit, states will need to borrow more to tide over shortfalls and the private sector has seen returns from investments dry out. All three are already heavily​​ indebted;​​ meaning the cost of capital for future borrowing will only grow. That leaves limited fiscal room to finance the building blocks of resilience: everything from grain to health, employment schemes, irrigation, efficient water systems and river management infrastructure. It could mean that efforts to reduce our energy emissions are left without patient pools of long-term capital.​​ The knowledge infrastructure needed to react to climate change might be left similarly underdeveloped. Climate change distinguishes itself from other policy fields in the wide range of analytical tasks it demands, from predicting weather trends to understanding how specific seed varieties react to droughts. Thinking about climate change requires a lot of people exploring varied questions simultaneously. That involves funding an ecosystem of thinkers from diverse disciplines. Only the state can provide for multi-year studies, institutional support and the like. These are inherently long-term investments and only really start paying off over decades, which means hamstrung investment in coming years will leave a knowledge​​ vacuum​​ in the future.​​ The final point relates to something more​​ ephemeral: the psychology of government. The Indian government, reacting to a million crises erupting across the economy, will be hard-pressed to plan for a hazy but​​ sinister​​ future. Promises of a greener, less turbulent future will falter against the turbulence of today; this instinct will be shared by governments across the world. This might well numb the effects of the global climate negotiation architecture.

Question: Read the following passage and decide the suitable one word for the given meaning

  • lasting for a very short time

  • vacuum

  • sinister

  • ephemeral

  • drought

Ans. c

Rationale: ephemeral means lasting for a very short time. Thus option c is the answer

  • free from moisture

  • ravage

  • drier

  • emission

  • sustainable

Ans. b

Rationale: drier means​​ free from moisture or liquid; not wet or moist. Thus option b is the answer

  • something harmful

  • sinister​​ 

  • scarcity​​ 

  • resilience​​ 

  • falter​​ 

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ giving the impression that something harmful or evil is happening or will happen.​​ Thus option a is the answer

  • have a strong emotional effect

  • juncture

  • overwhelmed

  • fiscal

  • hamstrung

Ans. b

Rationale: overwhelmed​​ means to have a strong emotional effect. Thus option b is the answer.

  • a​​ space entirely devoid of matter

  • analytical

  • emission

  • ravage

  • vacuum

Ans. d

Rationale: vacuum means a space entirely devoid of matter. Thus option d is the answer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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