English Language Practice Questions on One Word Substitution for CLAT 2020

Practice Questions on One Word Substitution for CLAT 2020

PASSAGE 1

SOURCE:​​ https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/skills/reading/upper-intermediate-b2/why-bridges-collapse

Some of the biggest and most expensive transportation projects in the world have involved building bridges. Bridges are crucial links that carry cars, trucks and trains across bodies of water, mountain gorges or other roads. As a result, they are one of the most important aspects of civil engineering and are subject to intense scrutiny, especially when they collapse.​​ Bridge collapses can be​​ events​​ which cause shock and dismay, leading to loss of life and serious property damage. That's why bridge engineers, designers and builders must always take their jobs very seriously. The best way for them to prevent these accidents is to understand why bridges collapse in the first place. Understanding bridge collapses can lead to major changes in the design, construction and safety of future building projects. The following are main reasons why bridges fall.​​ Historically, more bridges were made of wood and were much more susceptible to fire. This was particularly true of old-fashioned train bridges, where the spark created by the steel wheels and steel tracks could sometimes cause a bridge to catch fire and burn to the ground.​​ A large number of bridge accidents occur during the construction of the bridge itself. These accidents are often due to an error made by the engineers, such as a miscalculation. The bridge collapses under its own weight, and this can be deadly for the workers on it at the time.​​ Earthquakes damage all structures, including bridges. Luckily, this kind of collapse is relatively infrequent, especially with modern bridges. Engineers have learned to design bridges in earthquake zones on areas that are much more resistant to movement.​​ Some bridge collapses are mysteries, and engineers only realise why after they conduct a complete investigation. In some cases, this could happen because inferior-quality material was used in the construction, or because of a defect in a key piece of the bridge. In other cases, the bridge was designed only to support a certain amount of weight and no more.​​ Both of these kinds of accidents are extremely rare, but boats and trains can cause a bridge to collapse for different reasons. With trains, it's the velocity of the impact that can bring a bridge down. With boats, it's the very large mass​​ they have that can bring about the collapse, even if they are moving very slowly when it occurs.​​ The best way to avoid bridge failures is to plan for them. Modern technologies that can detect structural weakness, safer working environments and better designs can all help to reduce these terrible accidents.

Question: Read the following passage and decide the suitable one word for the given meaning

  • Events which cause shock and dismay

  • Trivial

  • Wholesome

  • Vexatious

  • Lethal

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ ‘trivial’ means something which is petty ‘wholesome’ means something in total ‘lethal’ means something deadly. These three words are commonly used in general language and it is easy to infer that none of these refer to something socking or dismay. Therefore, option c is the answer.

  • To prevent accidents

  • Impede

  • Abet

  • Assist

  • Baffle

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ ‘assist’ means to help, ‘baffle’ means confused, ‘abet’ means to instigate. Thus option ‘a’ is the answer as none of the rest words infer prevention.

  • Lead to major changes

  • Humble

  • Paltry

  • Substantial

  • Marginal

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ to bring a major change means to do something substantial, rest options refer to something marginal. Thus option c is the answer.

  • Something which is extremely rare

  • Customary

  • Bizarre

  • Typical

  • Special

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ extremely rare depicts which is not typical or customary i.e. which is infrequent. Therefore option b is the answer.

  • Best way to avoid​​ to something

  • Confront

  • Indulge

  • Embrace

  • Circumvent

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ avoidance depicts to ignore something and to indulge or embrace it, therefore option d is the answer.

PASSAGE 2

SOURCE​​ ​​ https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/skills/reading/advanced-c1/how-humans-evolved-language

Thanks to the field of linguistics we know much about the development of the 5,000 plus languages in existence today. We can describe their grammar and pronunciation and see how their spoken and written forms have changed over time. For example, we understand the origins of the Indo-European group of languages, which includes Norwegian, Hindi and English, and can trace them back to tribes in Eastern Europe in about 3000 BC.​​ So, we have mapped out a great deal of the history of language, but there are still areas we know little about. Experts are beginning to look to the field of evolutionary biology to find out how the human species developed to be able to use language. So far, there are far more questions and half-theories than answers.​​ We know that human language is far more complex than that of even our nearest and most intelligent relatives like chimpanzees. We can express complex thoughts, convey subtle emotions and communicate about abstract concepts such as past and future. And we do this following a set of structural rules, known as grammar. Do only humans use an innate system of rules to govern the order of words? Perhaps not, as some research may suggest dolphins share this capability because they are able to recognise when these rules are broken.​​ If we want to know where our capability for complex language came from, we need to look at how our brains are different from other animals. This relates to more than just brain size; it is​​ important what other things our brains can do and when and why they evolved that way. And for this there are very few physical clues; artefacts left by our ancestors don't tell us what speech they were capable of making. One thing we can see in the remains of early humans, however, is the development of the mouth, throat and tongue. By about 100,000 years ago, humans had evolved the ability to create complex sounds. Before that, evolutionary biologists can only guess whether or not early humans communicated using more basic sounds.​​ Another question is, what is it about human brains that allowed language to evolve in a way that it did not in other primates? At some point, our brains became able to make our mouths produce vowel and consonant sounds, and we developed the capacity to invent words to name things around us. These were the basic ingredients for complex language. The next change would have been to put those words into sentences, similar to the 'protolanguage' children use when they first learn to speak. No one knows if the next step – adding grammar to signal past, present and future, for example, or plurals and relative clauses – required a further development in the human brain or was simply a response to our increasingly civilised way of living together.​​ Between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, though, we start to see the evidence of early human civilisation, through cave paintings for example; no one knows the connection between this and language. Brains didn't suddenly get bigger, yet humans did become more complex and more intelligent. Was it using language that caused their brains to develop? Or did their more complex brains start producing language?​​ More questions lie in looking at the influence of genetics on brain and language development. Are there genes that changed in form​​ and gave us language ability? Researchers have found a gene mutation that occurred between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, which seems to have a connection with speaking and how our brains control our mouths and face. Monkeys have a similar gene, but it did not undergo this mutation. It's too early to say how much influence genes have on language, but one day the answers might be found in our DNA.

Question: Read the following passage and decide the suitable one word for the given meaning

  • Something which is more complex

  • Discernible

  • Apparent

  • Evident

  • Motley

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ complexity refers to a situation which is difficult to understand and which is not apparent or evident, therefore option ‘d’ is the answer.

  • Capacity to invent

  • Contrive

  • Clone

  • Imitate

  • Replicate

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ invention refers to creation of something new and which is not a replica or copy of anything. Thus option ‘a’ is the answer, contrive refers to creation of something new using skills.

  • To change in form and nature

  • Plateau

  • Mutate

  • Stabilize

  • Worsen

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ to change the nature refers to replacement of something with the other and not to remain stable, thus option b is the answer; ‘mutate’ means to change from one thing to another.

  • To evolve the ability

  • Ineptness

  • Paralysis

  • Propensity

  • Impotence

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ the phrase ‘to evolve the ability’ refers to developing the capability of doing something. Thus option c is the answer as the other options refers to inefficiency.

  • To change over time

  • Revamp

  • Fixation

  • Stabilization

  • Stagnation

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ the phrase ‘to change over time’ refers to a periodical change and not remaining stagnant or fix, thus option a is the answer which means to bring a change with time and create something new.

 

 

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