English Language Practice Paper on Reading Comprehension

English Language Practice Paper on Reading Comprehension

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/the-new-emerging-women-power-ground-realities)

Encouraging the analytical understanding of exploitation and discrimination among girls shall result in more confident and aware women who can further help in the formation of a gender just society. Prohibitions, reservations and punitive measures can only be the immediate and temporary interventions to promote gender equality. Only a shift in the mindset can facilitate the progress of the society in the longer run. Stricter laws and their honest enforcements have to be followed up by a change in the attitude towards social evils like rape, female foeticide, acid attacks along with the better treatment of the victims. NGOs and SHGs need to be strengthened as part of the empowerment process. These bodies work at the ground level and encourage the victims to share their experiences. Punishing the convicts is just a small part of the justice provided to the victims of gender violence. The major challenge is to help her rehabilitate and to develop a social environment that would preserve her sense of self-confidence and dignity. The role of community institutions like khap panchayats which dictate the social conduct of a community and promote inhuman practices like honour killing should be taken into account. These institutions have a strong hold on the psychology of a particular community. The fault lines of such structures have to be exposed in a manner that has a significant impact on the people of the community. The major role played by women in the economic growth of a country is known throughout the world. Last year, IMF’s chief Christine Lagarde stated that economic inclusion of more women workers in India would expand its GDP by 27% which is massive as compared to the similar impact on the U.S. and Japan which is 5% and 9% respectively. Progressing towards this, the first step would be to acknowledge the huge amount of unpaid care work done by women which hold back their possibilities of boosting the economy in a more productive manner. Moreover, discriminated approach towards the maternity process leaves women workers at a larger risk of being less favoured and losing job opportunities as compared to a male worker. These problems have their roots in the perception and performance of the gender roles assigned by patriarchy. Sharing of responsibilities and coexistence in an equitable manner is what should be of the larger concern in society. It is along these lines that vocational training and skill development should be focussed upon. It may be said that probing the ground realities of the catchy headlines like ‘the new emerging women power’ adds more substance and nuance to the discourse on gender justice. These nuances do not refuse the accomplishments achieved so far by society but actually point towards the remaining distance which still needs to be covered. Identification of the problem areas and weaknesses is the first step towards their eradication. India has shown a dedicated will to bring changes by pledging to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals which include ideals of gender justice and women​​ empowerment. Only with constructive planning and comprehensive changes at various levels in society the new emerging "women power" shall be soon able to realize its complete potential in India.

Questions

  • Why is punishing the convicts is considered a small part of the justice provided to the victims of gender violence?

  • Giving punishment to the accused makes no good to the victims

  • It is not feasible to decide the adequate punishment for the convicts

  • The major purpose is to socially rehabilitate the victim

  • Punishing convicts brings threat to the victim

Ans. c

Rationale: Punishing the convicts is just a small part of the justice provided to the victims of gender violence. The major challenge is to help her rehabilitate and to develop a social environment that would preserve her sense of self-confidence and dignity

  • What steps can be taken to promote gender equality in the long run?

  • prohibition

  • shift in mindset

  • punitive measures

  • reservations

Ans. b

Rationale: Prohibitions, reservations and punitive measures can only be the immediate and temporary interventions to promote gender equality. Only a shift in the mindset can facilitate the progress of the society in the longer run.

  • Why are female workers less favoured at work place than male workers?

  • Female workers are considered less efficient as compared to male workers

  • Female workers are not regular to work

  • Female workers seek maternity leaves

  • Female workers are more vulnerable to be the victim of cyber crimes in work space

Ans. c

Rationale: Moreover, discriminated approach towards the maternity process leaves women workers at a larger risk of being less favoured and losing job opportunities as compared to a male worker.

  • For what purpose vocational training is required to be given to the employees?

  • Ethical responsibility

  • Social development

  • Technological development

  • Coexistence in equitable manner

Ans. d

Rationale: Sharing of responsibilities and coexistence in an equitable manner is what should be of the larger concern in society. It is along these lines that vocational training and skill development should be focussed upon.

  • Identify the prefix or suffix used in the word ‘inclusion’

  • In

  • Ion

  • Sion

  • Inc

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ the suffix used in the word ‘inclusion’ is ‘sion’ which refers to the ‘state of being’. It is added to the word ‘include’ which then denotes state of being included.

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/changes-that-will-change-india)

Today, India is suffering from a multitude of problems on many fronts. In political realm, we witness a paradox. On one hand we have accepted democracy as the best form of governance rejecting monarchy, colonialism; on the other, we find democracy being hijacked by elite oligarchy, ‘Avatar’ worship, and dynasty rule. We must bring in at least 20 year cooling off period before which close kin of a retired party leader cannot inherit party leadership. We should also amend the constitution prohibiting one candidate from getting elected more than twice to post of Prime Minister as is followed in mature democracies like the U.S.A. We should also make it mandatory for new entrants in politics to first contest local level elections before contesting for Assembly or Parliament as is applicable in any other profession where one has to start from bottom to gain skills and expertise enough to run a responsible position. In a representative democracy, political parties are meant to serve people not individuals. Another crisis faced by our political setup is the rampant criminalization of politics. Association for Democratic Reforms​​ (ADR) reports that 188 out of 543 16th Lok Sabha members (about 34%) have criminal cases against them, many of which are of serious nature like murder, rioting, etc. Representation of People Act, 1951 should be amended to disallow political parties from giving tickets to candidates who have serious criminal charges filed against them at least 6 months prior to elections and where court has accepted the charge​​ sheet. In addition to this, Political Parties should usher a merit based system like any other professionally run organization by adhering to tools like Right to Information Act (2005), (as also recommended by Chief Information Commissioner), internal elections, etc. This will not just attract young talent but also develop quality standards and future benchmarks of good governance which unfortunately are absent in present political setup. Finally, no democracy prospers without an active citizenry. People get the leader they deserve. Contemporary falling political standards are simply a reflection of our social and moral degradation. Selling votes in exchange of bill payments, loan waivers, money or liquor reflects the path our democracy has embarked to soon turn into domination by masses. The spirit of stakeholder mentality needs to be rekindled in them. Although steps like NOTA (None​​ of the​​ above) were introduced to bring this change, they lacked substance and was seen more as waste of vote by people. Hence, NOTA should be given more powers like re-polling to take place in the constituency where NOTA​​ have​​ more votes than any of the candidates.

Questions

  • What kind of candidates should not be given election ticket?

  • Who has not completed graduation

  • Who lacks basic moral and ethical principles

  • Against whom charge sheet has been filed before 6 months of election

  • Who does not have experience in political field​​ 

Ans. c

Rationale: Representation of People Act, 1951 should be amended to disallow political parties from giving tickets to candidates who have serious criminal charges filed against them at least 6 months prior to elections and where court has accepted the charge​​ sheet.

  • In political realm, what paradox is witnessed?

  • Democracy is hijacked by oligarchy

  • Government elected by people works in few concentrated hands

  • Democracy is hijacked by monarchy

  • Parallel government is run by influential people

Ans. a

Rationale: On one hand we have accepted democracy as the best form of governance rejecting monarchy, colonialism; on the other, we find democracy being hijacked by elite oligarchy, ‘Avatar’ worship, and dynasty rule

  • What pattern of election should be followed in the developing countries?

  • Politically influential people should be appointed as the head of the State

  • Hereditary system should be followed in elections

  • Contesting local elections should become mandatory before assembly elections

  • One person should be allowed to become Prime Minister many times

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ should also make it mandatory for new entrants in politics to first contest local level elections before contesting for Assembly or Parliament as is applicable in any other profession where one has to start from bottom to gain skills and expertise enough to run a responsible position.

  • What are the essential requirements for a prosperous democracy?

  • Strong parliament

  • Active citizenry

  • Good governance

  • Internal elections

Ans. b

Rationale: Finally, no democracy prospers without an active citizenry. People get the leader they deserve.

  • Identify one word for domination by masses

  • Oligarchy

  • Mobocracy

  • Democracy

  • Monarchy

Ans. b

Rationale: Mobocracy refers to domination by masses

 

 

 

Questions got you stumped? Read our post on spelling correction.

Read our posts on CLAT English Language.

Read CLATapult’s post on a guide to acing CLAT English.

Read our post on Spotting the Error.

Got doubts about CLAT 2020? Find all your answers and much more here.

Get CLATalogue' Posts in Your Inbox