English Language Practice Paper on Reading Comprehension for CLAT 2020

English Language Practice Paper on Reading Comprehension for CLAT 2020

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/judicial-law/)

Law is inherently political. The law is interpreted, and like all interpretations, it is naturally influenced by political loyalties, ideologies and policy preferences. Courts can make policy through norm enforcement. Norms are political because various positions on norms can be help and which one is enforced will have political foundations and political repercussions. Courts are political institutions. Courts are established, run and funded by states. Recently we have seen a growth in the reliance on courts to deal with some of the most fundamental political dilemmas. Judicial independence is important to consider when we study whether judges are politicians. Judges need to be independent from the other branches of the State so that they can adjudicate without fear or favour. ​​ There is often no “fundamental difference between the position of judges and the position of policymaking officials” The close relationship between judges’ preferences and the preferences of those in government may stem from different sources. Judges may strategically avoid dissenting with powerful actors early on to enhance their authority in time. This would lead them to coordinate their judgements with the goals of​​ those in power in the short run.​​ This is particularly relevant when analysing emerging democracies. In emerging democracies courts do not have the same level of legitimacy or independence as those in developed democracies. In practice this means that elected officials do not hesitate to undermine and countermand court decisions. The Tatarstan Case 1992 is an example of this. In this example judges struck down a question for a referendum which they deemed unconstitutional. Despite Parliamentary support for the judgement the Tatarstan government ignored it and held the referendum. The decision was rendered meaningless. This demonstrates that newly established constitutional courts are forced to adhere to the views of the governing majority as they work to build their authority. This causes judges to be politicians whether they know it or not because they are simply acting as a means of extending the government’s agenda. ​​ 

This does not occur in the same way in developed democracies. In developed democracies courts may make decisions that challenge the government. For example, in the UK case Council for Civil Service Unions v. Government Central Communication Headquarters the judicial review resulted in a judgement relating to the Royal Prerogative which went against the wishes of the government. ​​​​ However, despite the scope for judges’ dissent, according to Epstein et al. (2001), in every democracy constitutional courts must be alert to the preferences of external actors if they wish to advance their own goals because judges rely on the governing majorities to give weight to their decisions. Consequently, judges benefit from appeasing both the public and the government.

Questions

  • In developing democracy can a government official surpass the decision of court?

  • No, as judiciary and legislature are independent of each other

  • Yes, as judiciary lacks independence in case of developing democracy

  • No, as government officials are bound by the decision of the court

  • Yes, as government officials are not bound by the decision of the court

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ In emerging democracies courts do not have the same level of legitimacy or independence as those in developed democracies. In practice this means that elected officials do not hesitate to undermine and countermand court decisions

  • According to the passage how are developed economies different than developing economies?

  • In developing economies the decision of judge may be ignored by government in order to promote their agenda whereas in developed economies court has no power to challenge the government’s decisions

  • In developing economies the decision of judge cannot be ignored by government in order to promote their agenda whereas in developed economies court may challenge the government’s decisions

  • In developing economies the decision of judge may be ignored by government in order to promote their agenda whereas in developed economies court cannot challenge the government’s decisions

  • In developing economies the decision of judge may be ignored by government in order to promote their agenda whereas in developed economies court may challenge the government’s decisions

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ This does not occur in the same way in developed democracies. In developed democracies courts may make decisions that challenge the government. For example, in the UK case Council for Civil Service Unions v. Government Central Communication Headquarters the judicial review resulted in a judgement relating to the Royal Prerogative which went against the wishes of the government. ​​​​ 

  • Decide whether judiciary and legislature are interdependent on each other?

  • No, they act independent of each other

  • Yes, one cannot function without the other

  • Partially dependent, partially independent

  • None of the above

Ans. a

Rationale:​​ Judges need to be independent from the other branches of the State so that they can adjudicate without fear or favour.

  • In Tatarstan’s case why judges have been equated to politicians?

  • The judge gave decision to promote government’s agenda

  • Government supported the decision given by the judge and they acted like partners in it

  • Government upheld the referendum which was declared unconstitutional by the court.

  • The judge formed the part of governing majority and pronounced the decision to extend government’s agenda.

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ The Tatarstan Case 1992 is an example of this. In this example judges struck down a question for a referendum which they deemed unconstitutional. Despite Parliamentary support for the judgement the Tatarstan government ignored it and held the referendum. The decision was rendered meaningless. This demonstrates that newly established constitutional courts are forced to adhere to the views of the governing majority as they work to build their authority. This causes judges to be politicians whether they know it or not because they are simply acting as a means of extending the government’s agenda. ​​ 

 

  • Identify the word from the passage which means the same as ‘quandary’

  • Agenda​​ 

  • Dilemma

  • Norm​​ 

  • Referendum​​ 

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ ‘quandary’ means a state of perplexity or uncertainity over what to do in a difficult situation which is similar to the meaning of dilemma which also means a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made.

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.thewisdompost.com/essay/technology-essay/3387)

Technology is basically the way we execute the discoveries of science and blend it with our own needs. Technology is a general term used to refer to the different tools, machines and equipment we use in everyday life. These tools and equipment have been invented by man to make the tasks faster, easier and more comfortable.​​ Since the invention of the wheel to the use of microchips in computers and mobiles, technology has come a long way. The man has reached the moon and explored the outer space just because of the advancement in the aeronautics field. Even in primitive occupations such as agriculture, there have been so many technological advancements with modern tools such as traction engine and steam tractor technology which has helped us make progress.​​ Although there have been countless examples where technology has changed our lives, there are some which are considered as revolutions for mankind. The technology used in the field of robotics in one such fine example. Nowadays robots are being used by people and industries all over the world for various purposes. They are also used in places which are otherwise considered harmful for humans thereby protecting us. One such area is the cleaning and managing of radioactive waste.​​ Artificial Intelligence (AI) is another field which is a classic example of the technological advancements man has achieved. Who could have imagined that a machine would be capable of thinking like us? That is what AI has been successful in doing. It is an intelligent machine capable of behaving like us. It can do activities such as problem-solving, planning, learning and even reasoning. Today AI is used in all major areas such as warfare, security, healthcare and communication. On top of this, it is far more efficient than us and has a lower rate of error.​​ Technology has its own importance in our​​ lives. Without technological advancements, our lives would not have been simpler and faster. The modernisation that the world is witnessing today has all been possible because of the technological developments in different fields. Moreover, it has helped in reducing the risks people had to undertake in many sectors such as mining. With new tools available, the tasks are less risky and are more efficient as well.​​ ​​ Technology is surely a boon for mankind. It is all the more important for the economic growth of a country. Modern technologies have in fact succeeded in reducing the human effort and the risk in doing a lot many things. But, still, it is for us to see how best we make use of the technology available to us.​​ While on one hand we can make use of technological advancements of nuclear energy to generate electricity and help many villages lighten us, at the hand the same nuclear energy can be used to create bombs which can cause mammoth destruction. Similarly, robots and other technological advancements have served as a good servant to us but the moment it becomes the master it can wipe off humanity from the Earth.

Questions

  • According to the passage what is the distinguishing feature of technological advancement through AI?

  • It has made the jobs of humans very easy

  • It is capable of solving human problems very fast

  • It thinks and behaves like humans

  • It supports humans in daily chores

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ Artificial Intelligence (AI) is another field which is a classic example of the technological advancements man has achieved. Who could have imagined that a machine would be capable of thinking like us? That is what AI has been successful in doing. It is an intelligent machine capable of behaving like us. It can do activities such as problem-solving, planning, learning and even reasoning.

  • What led to the development of technology initially?

  • Invention of microchip

  • Invention of wheel

  • Both a and b

  • None of the above

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ Since the invention of the wheel to the use of microchips in computers and mobiles, technology has come a long way.

  • How is technology both a boon and bane?

  • Technology is available only to rich and not to poor.

  • Technology carries with its benefits some inevitable drawbacks

  • Same Technology can be used for both growth and destruction

  • Different technologies are used for different purposes some good and some bad

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ it is for us to see how best we make use of the technology available to us.​​ While on one hand we can make use of technological advancements of nuclear energy to generate electricity and help many villages lighten us, at the hand the same nuclear energy can be used to create bombs which can cause mammoth destruction.

  • According to the passage how has robots proved as a boon for the mankind

  • They have made the work easy and fast

  • They protect us from harmful works

  • They help in waste management

  • All the above

Ans. d

Rationale:​​ The technology used in the field of robotics in one such fine example. Nowadays robots are being used by people and industries all over the world for various purposes. They are also used in places which are otherwise considered harmful for humans thereby protecting us.​​ One such area is the cleaning and managing of radioactive waste.

  • Identify the suffix or prefix used in the word ‘occupation’

  • On​​ 

  • Oc​​ 

  • Tion​​ 

  • None of the above

Ans. d

Rationale: ‘occupation’ is an independent word, if we will remove any letter from it, there will be no logical meaning of the remaining group letters. Thus option d is the answer.

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