English Language Practice Paper for CLAT 2020

English Language Practice Paper for CLAT 2020

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.environmentalpollution.in/essay/essay-on-plastic-pollution-top-4-essays/1496)

Plastic, the wonder material that we use for everything and which pollutes our environment, is perhaps the most harmful of trash dumped by mariners and sea-goers in sea because it does not readily break down in nature. In-fact, the plastic that goes over the side today may still be around in hundreds of years to foul up the fishing gear, boat propellers, and beaches of future generations.​​ Careless​​ disposal of plastic can have dire consequences. A plastic bag looks like a tasty jellyfish to an indiscriminate feeder like the sea turtle, but plastic is indigestible. It can choke, block the intestines of, or cause infection in those animals that consume it.​​ Plastics have no better method of disposal. Even if they were to be burned, then the people within the vicinity will be exposed to harmful plastic fumes. For instance, when polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics are burned they produce dioxins. These chemicals are very harmful to humans. Now, imagine the risks that people would be exposed to if a building​​ more​​ full of PVCs would go up in flames. Furthermore, a lot of energy is used during their production processes. The amount of energy used to manufacture nine plastic bags is approximated to be the same as energy used to drive a vehicle for at least half a mile. It is also worth noting that we do not receive them for free at our retail stores, we pay for them one way or another. Their costs are usually hidden in the prices of commodities we buy. Obviously most people are familiar with that. However, the catch is that our taxpayer money ends up being used to clean up plastic bag wastes. Imagine the cost of a plastic bag ranges between 3 to 5 cents, while the cost of cleaning it up is almost 17 cents. This is a clear case of cheap is expensive. Apart from that, they also affect our infrastructure. Plastic bags penetrate through drainage and sewer systems and clog them. This results to water blockages, burst pipes and water overflow. The situation is dire during rainy seasons, which in most cases results to flooding. Furthermore, it is not possible to recycle them. The waste is just too much to be contained. And if we decided to recycle them, then people will be encouraged to continue using them. As it stands now, plastic bags are not the only ones that we should be worried about. There are other forms of plastics that have not yet been banned, but still pose the same risks as plastic bags. The main issue with plastic bags is that they are very light and can fit anywhere, which means that they spread much faster than their heavier counterparts. Even if recycling was an option, there are no facilities on this earth that can keep up with the rate at which these bags are being made. Plastic ban is a move towards the right direction.​​ 

Questions

  • What are the reasons for discouragement of recycling of plastic?

  • Lack of facilities

  • people will be encouraged to continue using them

  • waste is too much to be contained

  • all the above

Ans. d

Rationale: it is not possible to recycle them. The waste is just too much to be contained. And if we decided to recycle them, then people will be encouraged to continue using them. Even if recycling was an option, there are no facilities on this earth that can keep up with the rate at which these bags are being made

  • What causes infection in marine animals?

  • Drinking contaminated water of the ocean due to industrial waste

  • Feeding on plastic bag which looks like jellyfish

  • Disposal of human waste transmits many diseases in the sea waters

  • Chemicals released into the water bodies causes choking of throat and infections to marine animals

Ans. b

Rationale: A plastic bag looks like a tasty jellyfish to an indiscriminate feeder like the sea turtle, but plastic is indigestible. It can choke, block the intestines of, or cause infection in those animals that consume it

  • Why is government more focussed on banning only plastic bags and not other forms of plastic?

  • Other forms of plastic are more profitable than plastic bags

  • Plastic bags are light weighted and they spread much faster than their heavier counterparts

  • Both a and b

  • None of the above

Ans. b

Rationale: The main issue with plastic bags is that they are very light and can fit anywhere, which means that they spread much faster than their heavier counterparts.

  • Why is plastic considered as most dangerous trash?

  • It spreads very fast and pollutes every place

  • It endangers life of marine animals

  • It does not readily break down in nature.

  • It consumes lot of energy in its production

Ans. c

Rationale: perhaps the most harmful of trash dumped by mariners and sea-goers in sea because it does not readily break down in nature. In-fact, the plastic that goes over the side today may still be around in hundreds of years to foul up the fishing gear, boat propellers, and beaches of future generations.

  • Identify the error in the following sentence:

Now, imagine the risks (a) that people would be exposed (b) to if a building more full (c) of PVCs would go up in flames (d).

Ans. c

Rationale: Adjectives expressing qualities, that do not have different degrees, cannot be compared. E.g. Perfect, complete, circular, full, unique etc. Thus ‘more’ will be removed.

 

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/the-new-emerging-women-power-ground-realities)

Gender issues and ‘women-empowerment’ has become the new buzzword across the globe in the last few decades. The increased familiarity with this term has resulted in the slow transformation of most of the ideologies that have justified inequalities in the social structures for the past so many years. The emerging debates that surround the concept of ‘empowerment’ have had considerable effects on the well-established roots of the institutions that provide support to the existing power structures such as family, state etc. Women have started to become aware of the limitations and confines of the territories within which they have been placed all these years. They have demanded control over their own bodies, equal spaces in the social institutions and an acknowledgment for their identity. Last few years have witnessed a sharp increase in the strategies of women’s development by the state in order to eliminate the gender gaps in the work opportunities, political participation, health facilities and distribution of resources. India as a nation has taken significant steps to fill the gender gaps existing in the societies here. The constitution of India provides equality of employment opportunity, voting rights and equal pay for equal work. It lays great emphasis​​ upon the dignity of women and constitutes several pro-visions like maternity reliefs to maintain a gender-sensitive environment at the workplace. Government schemes like ‘Beti bachao-Beti padhao’, ‘janani suraksha’, intend to ensure the better health care and education facilities. Policies like ‘New National Policy for Women’ endeavour to follow the ‘so-cially inclusive rights-based approach’ for the women empowerment. Apart from this, the introduction of Gender Budget Statement promises a just distribution of resources in the country across gender divisions as well. The past decade has also experienced an expansion of the definitions of terms like ‘rape’ and ‘violence’ in the legal context. Law has enlarged its frame in order to bring the exploitation of women in private and public sphere through the formulations of laws like Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005’ and ‘Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Prohibition & Redressal) Act, 2013’. Institutions like the National Commission for Women have been formed to identify and register the cases of oppression faced by women. Ministry of Women and Child Development is specifically dedicated to addressing the issues, policies and their implementations related to the women and children in the country. India has observed immense changes in its socio-political and economic conditions by the introduction of these measures as well as under the impact of globalization and technological advancements. Census 2001-2011 has recorded a significant rise in the literacy rate of women. The expansion of the service sector has generated fresh work opportunities for women. To a large extent, equality in the wages and participating roles among the women and men can be seen in the urban areas. It is in these areas that the phenomenon of ‘emerging women power’ is being most acutely observed.

Questions

  • How legal framers of the nation have contributed in the women empowerment?

  • By including retributive form of punishment

  • By giving subsidies to fight legal battles to women

  • By formulation of new laws to protect the interests of women

  • By ensuring equal representation of women in law

Ans. c

Rationale: Law has enlarged its frame in order to bring the exploitation of women in private and public sphere through the formulations of laws like Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005’ and ‘Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Prohibition & Redressal) Act, 2013’

  • What is the significance of government scheme ‘Beti bachao-Beti padhao’

  • To ensure equal opportunity to both male and females

  • To ensure​​ fair and equal treatment

  • To ensure educational and health facilities

  • To prohibit discrimination in availing education opportunities​​ 

Ans. c

Rationale: Government schemes like ‘Beti bachao-Beti padhao’, ‘janani suraksha’, intend to ensure the better health care and education facilities.

  • What are the causes of slow transformation of ideologies which justified inequalities?

  • Indifferent attitude of the government towards its people

  • Acceptance of patriarchal society on the larger extent

  • Incapability of women to raise voice in order to get equal treatment

  • Increased familiarity with the term ‘woman empowerment’

Ans. d

Rationale: Gender issues and ‘women-empowerment’ has become the new buzzword across the globe in the last few decades. The increased familiarity with this term has resulted in the slow transformation of most of the ideologies that have justified inequalities in the social structures for the past so many years.

  • According to the passage ‘emerging women power’ can be observed in which of the following areas?

  • Developing nations

  • Developed nations

  • Urban areas

  • Rural areas

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ To a large extent, equality in the wages and participating roles among the women and men can be seen in the urban areas. It is in these areas that the phenomenon of ‘emerging women power’ is being most acutely observed.

  • Identify the error in the following sentence:

It lays great emphasis upon the dignity (a) of women and constitutes several pro-visions (b) like maternity reliefs to maintain a gender-sensitive (c) environment at the workplace (d)

Ans. a

Rationale: instead of ‘upon’ ‘on’ will be used as​​ on​​ denotes position,​​ upon​​ denotes movement.

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