English Language Practice Paper for CLAT 2020

English Language Practice Paper for CLAT 2020

Passage 1

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/national-identity-and-patriotism)

National identity and Patriotism gives a sense of belonging to an individual in the world. It helps a person feel the presence of an extended family around him. Naturally the actions guided by such a philosophy will lead to betterment of a society and progress of the country. It is sometimes wrongly assumed that patriotism is love for one’s country at the cost of others. Actually such line of thinking stems from crude understanding of the idea of National Identity and Patriotism. India has a guiding philosophy of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ i.e. whole world is my family. Only such understanding of patriotism can bring peace and prosperity to the country as well as the world. Apart from that, excessive pride in a national identity and display of Patriotism may acquire the form of ‘ultra nationalism’ and jingoism. Ultra nationalism inevitably turns exclusionary in nature and hence leads not to the assertion but disintegration of national unity and ultimately identity. Similarly jingoism, by constantly falling back upon the idea of ultra nationalism when faced with any issue or problem of past/present, vitiates the community atmosphere and starts imposing restrictions upon any free speech or dissent. Such extremism leads only to great destruction as exemplified several times in history by various totalitarian regimes such as those of Hitler and Mussolini. One should always keep in mind what Edward R. Murrow, an American journalist said in context of USA during one of the most volatile phases of Cold War. He said ‘We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. When the loyal opposition dies, I think the soul of the nation dies with it.’ The turn of 20th century was seen as a challenge to the age of Nations, as it has been popularly referred to in the parlance of social sciences, due to unhindered rise of globalization, emergence of multinational companies with their revenues several times the GDP of several countries, and the age of internet which connected the world more than ever before. There was also a faction of scholars that saw it as approaching ‘clash of civilizations’ where multiple national or other identities are bound to engage in a clash, in order to emerge as the superior-most among all. However, both prophesies can be seen to be missing the mark. The globalization has not only brought the world closer than ever, it has also sensitized people towards their own identities. It has taught the world to be more appreciative of the diversity of cultures, thoughts and nationalities. The demands for more apt representation from different parts of the world at United Nations and the recent reforms at International Monetary Fund (IMF) aimed at better representation of emerging nations at the international platform are two examples of the above phenomenon. Similarly, the increased contact between the various identities is not leading to any clash of civilizations but, in fact, has resulted in globally coordinated efforts to contain such clashes. Foundation of various international forums and signing of various trans-national treaties to engage with issues of security, energy and environmental concerns are cases in point. The visionary project of​​ Inter-national Solar Alliance (ISA) launched by our Prime minister is an example of how multiple nations are coordinating in the contemporary globalised world to strike a balance between the global concerns of climate change and pressing national energy security concerns.​​ 

Questions

  • What are the effects of showing excessive pride in nation?

  • It leads to the strong and united nation

  • It helps people realise the value of their national identity

  • It leads disintegration of national unity and identity

  • It leads to assertion of national integrity and unity

Ans. c

Rationale: excessive pride in a national identity and display of Patriotism may acquire the form of ‘ultra nationalism’ and jingoism. Ultra nationalism inevitably turns exclusionary in nature and hence leads not to the assertion but disintegration of national unity and ultimately identity

  • According to the passage what does the term ‘jingoism’ indicates?

  • Extreme patriotism in aggressive form

  • Extreme pride in nation which is balanced by rational decisions

  • Having strong national unity and identity

  • Disintegration in national identity and unity

Ans. a

Rationale: term ‘jingoism’ indicates extreme patriotism in aggressive form. Jingoism, by constantly falling back upon the idea of ultra nationalism when faced with any issue or problem of past/present, vitiates the community atmosphere and starts imposing restrictions upon any free speech or dissent.

  • In order to have peace and prosperity in the country as well as world one should have what kind of beliefs?

  • love for one’s country at the cost of others

  • whole world is my family

  • only members of my country are my brothers

  • there exists a healthy competition between the nations

Ans. b

Rationale: India has a guiding philosophy of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ i.e. whole world is my family. Only such understanding of patriotism can bring peace and prosperity to the country as well as the world.

  • In the long run what has been impact​​ of globalization?

  • It has led to clash of civilizations

  • It has sensitized people towards their own identities

  • It has made people realise variability in the cultures

  • It has expanded the gap in the world

Ans. b

Rationale:​​ The globalization has not only brought the world closer than ever, it has also sensitized people towards their own identities. It has taught the world to be more appreciative of the diversity of cultures, thoughts and nationalities.

  • Identify the prefix or suffix used in the word ‘exemplified’

  • Ex

  • Ed

  • Ied

  • None of the above

Ans. d

Rationale: in the word ‘exemplified’ no suffix or prefix is used as if we remove ‘ex’ then the remaining word has no independent meaning.

Passage 2

Source: (https://www.drishtiias.com/mains/model-essays/the-focus-of-healthcare-is-increasingly-getting-skewed-towards-the%20-haves-of-our-society)

Another way to ensure better health facilities for the ‘have-nots’ is by increasing penetration of health insurance in our country. Rashtriya Swathya Bima Yojana (RSBY) that provides for cashless health insurance at authorized private hospitals for below poverty line families and unorganized sector is one such scheme. Similarly other state run health insurance schemes for central and state government employees, tax incentives announced in Budget 2015-16 related to health insurance etc. are also right steps in this direction. Such schemes if properly implemented can go a long way in bringing quality healthcare within reach for all. However one side effect of these schemes has been the medical overuse crisis in India. A media report shows that between 2009 and 2015, number of surgeries conducted under government health welfare schemes has shot up remarkably. Surgeries like C-sections, hysterectomies and other emergency surgeries are being performed with abandon and without caring about their side effects on patients. This can potentially lead to a situation in India where the poor have access to complex surgeries but not to basic primary health care. Therefore while the government needs to increase oversight over implementation of its health welfare schemes, at the same time there needs to be a realization that health insurance schemes can only supplement a robust public health setup and not be a substitute for it. Therefore good health is not only a fundamental right but also a necessity for India in order to augment its human resources capability to emerge as a developed nation. Presently healthcare in India is lagging behind on accessibility, affordability as well as quality especially for the socio-economically marginalized sections of its society. India cannot merely rely on the private sector to provide healthcare to the ‘have-nots’ neither is merely relying on expanding penetration of health insurance a solution. India will need to learn from its own successes in public health intervention in the form of mass immunization programs and its success against a number of infectious diseases. If the poor are to be saved from the vicious circle of poverty and poor health feeding upon each other, focus needs to shift to preventive and curative treatments against non-communicable diseases in the public health sector. India needs to at least double its investment in public health facilities and in the overall health sector as a percentage of its GDP. The availability of medicines and doctors and accessibility to public health​​ centres​​ by​​ opening up new hospitals in rural areas needs to be increased. Such investment will provide tremendous long term returns for India not only by increasing productivity of its workforce and hence that of the nation but also via savings in the healthcare expenses. Only with a world-class health setup that leaves no one behind, can India​​ fulfil​​ its constitutional obligation of ensuring Right to Life in a substantive manner as well as take a leap towards truly earning its place among the developed nations!

Questions

  • In order to save weaker section from the vicious circle of poverty government should take which of the following steps?

  • Give subsidies to poor for medical healthcare

  • Encourage establishment of private healthcare systems

  • Shift focus on public healthcare for the preventive treatment

  • Give medical insurance for non communicable diseases to the marginalised section

Ans. c

Rationale:​​ If the poor are to be saved from the vicious circle of poverty and poor health feeding upon each other, focus needs to shift to preventive and curative treatments against non-communicable diseases in the public health sector. India needs to at least double its investment in public health facilities

  • Rashtriya Swathya Bima Yojana benefits the poor in which manner?

  • Provides​​ health insurance at public​​ healthcare institutions

  • Provides healthcare subsidies to the weaker section

  • Provides free medical treatment to poor in all the hospitals

  • Provides health insurance at private healthcare institutions

Ans. d

Rationale: Rashtriya Swathya Bima Yojana (RSBY) that provides for cashless health insurance at authorized private hospitals for below poverty line families and unorganized sector is one such scheme.

  • How can India substantially fulfil its constitutional obligation of ensuring Right to Life?

  • Increasing hospitals in rural areas

  • Promoting private healthcare systems

  • Spreading awareness about importance to Right to life

  • Providing free healthcare treatments to marginalised section

Ans. a

Rationale: The availability of medicines and doctors and accessibility to public health centres by opening up new hospitals in rural areas needs to be increased. Such investment will provide tremendous long term returns for India not only by increasing productivity of its workforce and hence that of the nation but also via savings in the healthcare expenses. Only with a world-class health setup that leaves no one behind, can India fulfil its constitutional obligation of ensuring Right to Life in a substantive manner

  • Heath care schemes run by State have prompted to ensure that health care reaches to all but what is its negative impact on the people?

  • Excessive cost to the government fund which in turns prove to be detrimental

  • Conduction of complex medical processes but unavailability of primary health care

  • Both a and b

  • None of the above

Ans. b

Rationale: one side effect of these schemes has been the medical overuse crisis in India. A media report shows that between 2009 and 2015, number of surgeries conducted under government health welfare schemes has shot up remarkably. Surgeries like C-sections, hysterectomies and other emergency surgeries are being performed with abandon and without caring about their side effects on patients. This can potentially lead to a situation in India where the poor have access to complex surgeries but not to basic primary health care.

  • Identify the prefix or suffix used in the word ‘unorganized’

  • Ed

  • Un

  • Ized

  • Uno

Ans. a

Rationale: in the word ‘unusual’ prefix ‘un’ which means ‘not’. When ‘un’ is joined with ‘usual’, it depicts something which is not usual.

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