CLATalogue CLAT 2020 Mock Test 3

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CLATalogue-Lawctopus-Clatapult-Mock 3

Quantitative Reasoning

Directions: (Q.1 to 5) Solve the following problems on the basis of following table.

Companies

Branches

Total Number of​​ Employees

Ratio of Male to Female Employees

Percentage of Post-Graduate Employees

P

16

2568

5:7

75%

Q

18

2880

11:5

65%

R

14

2310

10:11

40%

S

22

3575

3:2

60%

T

13

2054

7:6

50%

U

17

2788

20:21

75%

V

24

3720

8:7

55%

W

21

3360

9:5

80%

 

  • ​​ If the number​​ of male post graduate employees in W is 1488, what percent of the female employees in that particular company are post graduate?

  • 75%

  • 100%

  • 74%

  • 50%

  • Which of the following companies has maximum number of male employees?

  • P​​ 

  • R

  • S

  • U

  • What is the ratio of total​​ number of male employees in companies Q and W together to the total number of female employees in companies R and S together?

  • 63:51

  • 51:48

  • 77:63

  • 69:44

  • What is the sum of the average number of post graduate employees in companies P, Q and S together and the​​ average number of post graduate employees in companies U, V and W?

  • 4272

  • 4312

  • 4256

  • 4346

  • Which of the given companies has the second highest number of average employees among all companies per branch office?

  • Q

  • R

  • S

  • U

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Directions: (Q.6 to Q10): the​​ following table shows different plans offered by a Co-operative Bank, type of interest and rates for first, second and third years with some values being missing, if required calculate those values too.

 

 

Plans

 

 

 

Type of Interest

 

 

Rate of Interest

First Year

Second Year

Third Year

A

Simple Interest

-

6.66%

3.66%

B

Compound Interest

-

6.25%

-

C

Simple Interest

8.75%

5.25%

-

D

Compound Interest

7.5%

-

4.75%

E

Simple Interest

-

5.8%

4.6%

 

  • If Ramesh takes two loans of Rs. 12,000 each under plan B​​ and E respectively and rate of interest for the first year under plan B and D is same, then what is the difference between second year’s interests alone paid by each of them?

  • Rs. 105.25

  • Rs. 110.25

  • Rs. 115.25

  • Rs. 120.25

  • Akash requested a loan from the bank​​ of Rs. 20480 under plan C. After completion of the procedure, the loan was granted for 3 years, later after 3 years the loan was further extended for the period of 2 years under plan D on the amount payable at that time. He settles his loan by paying Rs. 27778. What is the rate of interest for the second year under plan D if rate of interest for the third year under plan C and D is same?

  • 5.75%

  • 5.25%

  • 6.25%

  • 6.75%

  • If the amount borrowed by Ramesh under plan B and C are in the ratio of 16:13 and rate applicable​​ during first year under plan B and D are same, then what is the ratio of interests payable under these plans at the end of second year.

  • 5:6

  • 3:5

  • 3:4

  • 5:4

  • After a difficult run, the bank decides to offer a fixed rate of 6.66% per year under plan C. by how much percent the interest payable will increase from the interest payable previously under the plan for the period of 3 years if rate of interest for the third year under old plan C and plan D is same?

  • 6.66%

  • 6.25%

  • 6.66%

  • 6.4%

  • Rates of interest for the first​​ year under plan A and E are 8.66% and 7.6% respectively. Akash borrows a total of Rs. 30000 partially from both the plans and pays a total interest of Rs. 5540 at the end of third year. How much amount does he borrow under plan A?

  • 14000

  • 18000

  • 16000

  • 15000

 

 

English

 

Read the passage carefully and choose the correct option to the questions given below:

It is an old saying that knowledge is power. Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, indirectly controls power. ​​ Therefore, ever since the dawn of our civilization, persons in power have always tried to supervise or control education. It has been handmaid of the ruling class. During the Christian era, the ecclesiastics controlled the institution of education and diffused among the people the gospel of the Bible and religious teachings. These gospels and teachings were no other than a philosophy for the maintenance of the existing society. It taught the poor man to be meek and to earn his bread with the sweat of his brow, while the priests and the landlords lived in luxury and fought duels for the slightest offence.

During the Renaissance, education passed more from the clutches of the priest into the hands of the prince. In other words, it became more secular. Under control of the monarch, education began to devise and preach the infallibility of its masters, the monarch or king. It also invented and supported fantastic theories like “The Divine Right Theory” and that the king can do no wrong etc. With the advent of the industrial revolution, education took a different turn and had to please the new masters. It now no longer remained the privilege of the baron class, but was thrown open to the new rich merchant of the society. The philosophy which was in vogue during this period was that of “Laissez Faire” restricting the function of the State to a mere keeping of laws and order while on the other hand, in practice the law of the jungle prevailed in the form of free competition and the survival of the fittest.​​ 

 

  • What is education according​​ to the passage?

  • Knowledge is power.

  • Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, indirectly controls power.

  • Education is the instrument which imparts knowledge and, therefore, directly controls power.

  • Education is the tool of the​​ powerful class to control the poorer section of the society.

 

  • Why is Education the handmaid of the ruling class?

  • The ruling class is more educated.

  • ​​ Ever since the beginning of our civilization the persons in power have got the scope of education more than the poorer people.

  • Ever since the dawn of our civilization, persons in power have always tried to supervise or control education.

  • ​​ Education is restricted only for the ruling class.

 

  • What does the theory “Divine Right of King” lay down?

  • The Kings are God.

  • That the right of governing is conferred upon the Kings by God.

  • ​​ They have the right to be worshipped like Gods by their subjects.

  • That the rights of Kings are divine and therefore sacred.

 

  • During which period did the education become more secular?

  • Ancient era

  • Medieval era

  • Renaissance era​​ 

  • Christian era

 

  • When did education take a different turn and no longer remained privilege of the ruling class?

  • with the advent of the Industrial Revolution

  • with the advent of the new masters.

  • with the advent of the​​ baron class

  • ​​ with the advent of the poor class.

 

Direction:​​ (Q16-20) Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow by selecting the most suitable option.

 

If there’s a single central insight in economics, it’s this: There are mutual​​ gains from transactions between consenting adults. If the going price of widgets is $10 and I buy a widget, it must be because that widget is worth more than $10 to me. If you sell a widget at that price, it must be because it costs you less than $10 to make it. So buying and selling in the widget market works to the benefit of both buyers and sellers. More than that, some careful analysis shows that if there is effective competition in the widget market, so that the price ends up matching the number of widgets people want to buy to the number of widgets other people want to sell, the outcome is to maximize the total gains to producers and consumers. Free markets are “efficient” — which, in economics-speak as opposed to plain English, means that nobody can be made better off without making someone else worse off.

Now, efficiency isn’t everything. In particular, there is no reason to assume that free markets will deliver an outcome that we consider fair or just. So the case for market efficiency says​​ nothing about whether we should have, say, some form of guaranteed health insurance, aid to the poor and so forth. But the logic of basic economics says that we should try to achieve social goals through “aftermarket” interventions. That is, we should let markets do their job, making efficient use of the nation’s resources, then utilize taxes and transfers to help those whom the market passes by. But what if a deal between consenting adults imposes costs on people who are not part of the exchange? What if you manufacture a widget and I buy it, to our mutual benefit, but the process of producing that widget involves dumping toxic sludge into other people’s drinking water? When there are “negative externalities” — costs that economic actors impose on others without paying a price for their actions — any presumption that the market economy, left to its own devices, will do the right thing goes out the window. So what should we do? Environmental economics is all about answering that question. One way to deal with negative​​ externalities is to make rules that prohibit or at least limit behavior that imposes especially high costs on others. That’s what we did in the first major wave of environmental legislation in the early 1970s: cars were required to meet emission standards​​ for the chemicals that cause smog, factories were required to limit the volume of effluent they dumped into waterways and so on. And this approach yielded results; America’s air and

water became a lot cleaner in the decades that followed.

But while the​​ direct regulation of activities that cause pollution makes sense in some cases, it is seriously defective in others, because it does not offer any scope for flexibility and creativity. Consider the biggest environmental issue of the 1980s — acid rain. Emissions of sulphur dioxide from power plants, it turned out, tend to combine with water downwind and produce flora-and wildlife destroying sulphuric acid. In 1977, the government made its first stab at confronting the issue, recommending that all new coal-fired plants have scrubbers to remove sulphur dioxide from their emissions. Imposing a tough standard on all plants was problematic, because retrofitting some older plants would have been extremely expensive. By regulating only new plants, however, the government passed up the opportunity to achieve fairly cheap pollution control at plants that were, in fact, easy to retrofit.

 

  • Based on the coal-fired plants’ example given in the passage, which of the following would the author consider to be the most apt action on part of the government to fix the issue of coal-fired plants emitting sulphur dioxide?

 

  • It is made compulsory for the coal-fired plants to install meters to monitor their sulphur dioxide emissions and a tax directly proportional to the level of emissions is to be paid by the plant.

 

  • An action plan is formulated which involves shutting down the coal-fired plants in the next five years and replacing them with some kind of clean energy power plants.

 

  • A law is passed wherein the government will contribute 30% to the total cost of installing a scrubber for all coal-fired plants.

 

  • It is made compulsory for all new plants to have scrubbers and an upper expense limit for retrofitting is set, and only those plants whose retrofitting cost falls below this limit​​ must install scrubbers.

 

  • Which of the following is not a part of the ‘efficiency’ the passage speaks of?

 

  • Producers and consumers both stand to gain from their mutual transactions.

  • Producers sell their products at a cost higher than the production cost.

  • Nobody can be made better off without making someone worse off.

  • A major producer may temporarily sell his product at a loss to drive off competitors.

 

  • According to the passage, which of the following is true?

 

  • We should let the markets do their job without​​ excessive regulations.

  • Effective competition maximizes the total gains of producers and consumers.

  • Someone is always at the losing end of a transaction even in a mutually beneficial one.

  • Effective markets mitigate poverty.

 

  • Which of the following is true​​ regarding environmental economics?

 

  • Its aim is to maintain market efficiency while making sure that the environment isn’t harmed.

  • It depends wholly on governmental regulations for securing its goals.

  • It tries to curb the negative fallouts of economic activities.

  • It cannot function without pre-existing market efficiency and a proper system of taxation.

 

  • The passage is most probably an excerpt from

 

  • a speech made by an economist.

  • a newspaper article.

  • an article in a journal of economics.

  • a textbook of​​ economics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logical Reasoning

Directions for Q.21 - 24

Six friends are sitting around a rectangular table such that two people are sitting on each of the lengths and 1 person is sitting on each of the width. Deepa is between Prakash and Pankaj.​​ Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. Prakash and Mukesh are opposite to each other.

  • Who is sitting right to Prakash?

  • Mukesh

  • Deepa

  • Pankaj

  • Lalit​​ 

 

  • Who is just to the right of Pankaj?

 

  • Deepa

  • Lalit

  • Prakash

  • Priti​​ 

 

  • Who are neighbours of Mukesh?

 

  • Prakash and Deepa

  • Deepa and Priti

  • Priti and Pankaj

  • Lalit and Priti​​ 

 

  • Who is sitting opposite to Priti?

 

  • Prakash​​ 

  • Deepa

  • Pankaj

  • Lalit​​ 

 

Directions for Q.25 to 29

Six army majors are sitting around a rectangular table such that two people are sitting on each of the lengths​​ and one person on each of the widths and discussing about stopping infiltration across the border. Major Bakshi is sitting between Major Kalia and Major Sodhi. Major Kalia is sitting immediate left of Major Bakshi. Major Kumar is sitting second to the left​​ of Major Kalia. Major Nanda is sitting between Major Kumar and Major Sodhi.

 

  • What is the position of Major Batra?

  • Major Batra is sitting between Major Kumar and Major Kalia.

  • Major Batra is sitting to the left of Major Kalia.

  • Major Batra is sitting to the​​ immediate right of Major Kumar.

  • All the above are true.

 

  • Who is sitting to the immediate left of Major Kumar?

  • Major Bakshi

  • Major Batra

  • Major Nanda

  • Major Sodhi

 

  • Who is sitting to the immediate right of Major Kalia?

  • Major Nanda

  • Major Kumar

  • Major Kalia

  • Major​​ Bakshi

 

  • Which of the following statement is true?

  • Major Sodhi is sitting second to the left of Major Bakshi.

  • Major Kalia is sitting between Major Nanda and Major Kumar.

  • Major Batra is sitting to the left of Major Kalia.

  • Major Nanda is sitting to the left of Major Kalia.

 

  • How many Majors are sitting between Major Sodhi and Major Kumar, if counted in clockwise direction?

  • Six

  • Two

  • Three

  • Five

 

  • What is Major Batra’s position with respect to Major Sodhi?

  • Second to the left.

  • Immediate Right.

  • Fourth to the Right.

  • Third to the left.

 

Current Affairs

Instruction: Please read the following extract(s)/excerpt(s) of current affairs and answer the questions that follow.​​ 

Passage 1:​​ The Sustainable Development Goals Index for 2019, released by [x] on Monday, does not​​ reveal any surprising information. The [y] as the best performers while the northern/north-central and north-eastern States have been haggardly in achieving the U.N.-mandated goals by [w].​​ 

Poor performers such as [z] have shown discernible advances in the​​ indices — measured between 2018-19 — especially in adopting cleaner energy and improving sanitation.​​ 

But the regional divide is stark in basic livelihood goals such as “eradication of poverty”, and “good health and well-being” or even in measures such as​​ “industry, innovation and infrastructure”. This points to variances in both State governance and in administrative structures and implementation of welfare policies.​​ 

[Extracted with edits and revisions from​​ The Hindu]​​ 

 

  • The Sustainable Developmental Goals Index 2019 was released by an organization/department which has been replaced with [x] in the above passage.​​ What is the name of the organization/department?

  • Vidhi.​​ 

  • National Institution for Transforming India.

  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan Kendra, Government of India.

  • None of the above.​​ 

  • The Sustainable Developmental Goals Index 2019​​ was released by an organization/department which has been replaced with [x] in the above passage. ​​ Who is the chairperson of that organization/department?

  • Prakash Javadekar.​​ 

  • Narendra Modi.

  • Rajnath Singh.​​ 

  • M. Venkaiah Naidu.​​ 

  • An Indian state which has been replaced with [y] topped the list​​ in the recent Sustainable Developmental Goals Index 2019. What is the name of the state has been replaced with [y] in the aforementioned passage?

  • Tamil Nadu.​​ 

  • Karnataka.

  • Kerala.​​ 

  • Andhra Pradesh

  • The Sustainable Developmental Goals Index 2019 was released to​​ achieve United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal a certain target year, which has been replaced with [w]. Identify the year by which the Sustainable Developmental Goals are sought to be achieved by the United Nations?

  • 2022

  • 2025.

  • 2030.​​ 

  • 2050

  • Which of the following is NOT factually correct statement about the United Nations- Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is adopted the United Nations Member States?

  • The Agenda for Sustainable Developmental Goal was adopted by the United Nations Members States​​ in the year 2015.

  • The Agenda for Sustainable Developmental Goals provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future to be achieved.

  • The Agenda for Sustainable Developmental Goals provides for 16​​ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership

  • Both (a) and (c)

Passage 2:​​ The Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019 seems to discriminatory and it is only a matter​​ of time before its constitutionality is subjected to severe judicial scrutiny. The government’s obstinacy in going ahead with it, despite opposition in Parliament, as well as​​ from enlightened sections, is unfortunate. In both its intent and wording, the proposed amendment singles out a community for hostile treatment.​​ 

In short, it chooses to open its citizenship door to certain communities [1] from certain specific nations- viz.[2]. The ostensible reason: an opportunity to members of minority communities​​ from these countries who had entered India prior to [3], to apply for citizenship through naturalization.​​ 

Further, the statement of objects and reasons of the act refers to [4] through which it had exempted these undocumented migrants from the adverse penal consequences under the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920, and the Foreigners’ Act, 1946.

[Extracted with edits and revisions from​​ The Hindu]​​ 

  • The​​ Citizenship Amendment Bill (2019) was recently passed in both the houses of the Indian Parliament and has received the assent of the President of India. What is the name of the parent act which the Citizenship Amendment Bill (2019) seek to amend?

  • The Citizenship Act, 1956.

  • The Citizenship Act, 1955.

  • Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920

  • The Indian Citizenship (Acquisition) Act, 1955

  • The Citizenship Amendment Bill (2019) choses to open citizenship to certain specific communities who have been faced persecution on grounds of religion in certain specific countries. Identify name of the communities which has been replaced with [1] in the abovementioned passage.

  • Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Parsi and Christian

  • Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Muslim, and Christian.

  • Hindu, Sikh,​​ Buddhist, Jain, Parsi and Christian​​ 

  • Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain and Parsi.​​ 

  • The Citizenship Amendment Bill (2019) choses to open citizenship to certain specific communities who have been faced persecution on grounds of religion in certain specific countries. The names of the countries have been with [2]. ​​ Which of the following country has not been included in the name of the group of the countries in the abovementioned passage?​​ 

  • Pakistan.

  • Myanmar.

  • Sri Lanka

  • Both b and c.

  • Which notification/circular/act,​​ which is replaced with [4], is being discussed in the abovementioned passage?

  • Notification, Ministry of Home Affairs 2015-16

  • Notification, Ministry of Law and Justice2015-16

  • The Citizenship Act, 1955

  • None of the above.​​ 

  • Which of the following is factually​​ correct about the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019?​​ 

  • The Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 provides an opportunity to members of minority communities from Bangladesh and Pakistan

  • The Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 provides all people who had entered India prior to December 31, 2014, to apply for citizenship through naturalization.

  • The Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 requires the existing Indian Citizen to prove their citizenship through the process of National Registry of Citizen, which will be notified on a​​ later date.

  • None of the above.​​ 

Deductive Reasoning

 

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions;

Passage 1:​​ The human rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) following the dilution of Article 370 and the passage of the Citizenship​​ (Amendment) Act (CAA) have brought renewed international focus on India’s human rights practice. Responding to criticism made by the​​ United Nations​​ agencies and others, the Indian state asserted that both J&K and CAA are entirely internal matters and there cannot be any interference in such sovereign decisions.

What is remarkable about modern international human rights law is its recognition of individuals as subjects.​​ Classic​​ international law​​ governed the conduct between states and did not recognise the rights of individuals. Countries made agreements on the premise that a​​ sovereign state had the exclusive right to take any action it thought fit to deal with its nationals. Such a notion of absolute sovereignty was challenged in 19th century with the emergence of humanitarian intervention to protect minorities living in other states. Later, in 1919, the evolution of labour standards led to the establishment of the International Labour Office (ILO). In 1926, the Slavery Convention adopted by the League of Nations prohibiting slave trade heralded the first human rights treaty based on the principle of dignity of a human being. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the United Nations, was the first comprehensive international human rights document. The Universal Declaration has acquired the force of law as part of the​​ customary law of nations. It has provided the basis for binding human rights treaties and non-binding guidelines/principles that constitute a distinct body of law known as international human rights law.

This progress of international law in the last 100 years makes the Indian state’s assertion of its sovereign right unsustainable. The evolution of international​​ human rights​​ law is also about the gradual weakening of the concept of unrestricted sovereignty. The Indian government has ratified several international human rights treaties and submits periodic reports to the respective treaty bodies. By doing so, it has acknowledged the principle that the treatment of its citizens is not entirely an internal matter, and such measures do not enjoy an absolute sovereignty.

The Indian government’s response to concerns about its human rights practice has always been that international scrutiny is unwarranted since the country is the​​ largest democracy in the world with an independent judiciary, free media, and an active civil society. These claims sound less credible after the recent developments in J&K and the passage of the CAA.

Passage from​​ The Hindu

  • The author says that the kashmir issue has brought "renewed international focus" on India's human rights practice. What inference can be drawn from this statement?

  • There is human rights violation in J&K which is attracting international attention

  • The human rights issue in India has become an international matter

  • Human rights violation has always been an issue in India which has drawn international criticism/comments​​ over the years

  • The situation in J&K has become alarming enough to garner international attention

 

  • In reply to international criticism on the J&K situation, Indian government's stand is "entirely internal matters and there cannot be any interference in such​​ sovereign decisions". What is the author's opinion on it?

  • He agrees with the stand because Kashmir comes under the territory of India which is a sovereign country

  • He disagrees with the stand because human rights violation cannot be a state's internal matter

  • He agrees with it because while signing treaties at the international level Countries make agreements on the premise that a sovereign state has the exclusive right to take any action it thought fit to deal with its nationals

  • He disagrees with the stand​​ because norms in international law have changed

  • What is the significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to the point the author is trying to make?

  • It is the first comprehensive international human rights document

  • It has provided the basis for​​ binding human rights treaties and non-binding guidelines/principles that constitute a distinct body of law known as international human rights law

  • It talks about human rights which a person is entitled to by virtue of being a person

  • It has changed the earlier position of international law by making human rights an international matter by weakening the concept of unrestricted sovereignty

  • What is the most significant difference between the earlier approach of international law and the current approach?

  • Recognition of individuals as it's subjects

  • Multiple international treaties are now entered into by the states

  • Sovereignty and socio-economic conditions of the states is given due consideration

  • Human rights gained a lot more importance

  • What is the main argument that the author has used to support his opinion on India's position in the issue?

  • The changed approach of international human rights law

  • India has ratified several international human rights treaties which signifies that India has acknowledged that human rights is not an internal issue

  • India has ratified several international human rights treaties which signifies that India has entered into the treaties as a sovereign nation and how it treats its citizens is an internal issue

  • International law recognises the concept of unrestricted sovereignty

Passage 2:​​ The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which is the lead agency within the UN system on all aspects related to human rights, has expressed its concern stating that the CAA “is​​ fundamentally discriminatory in nature”. It has also said that “although India’s broader naturalization laws remain in place, these amendments will have a discriminatory effect on people’s access to nationality.”

International human rights law includes safeguards against unwarranted foreign intervention and stresses the exhaustion of domestic remedies before an issue is considered by an international body. The Indian state always assured the international community that the judiciary, mainly its Supreme Court, would provide adequate remedies to victims of human rights violations. However, of late, the faith of the common people in the higher judiciary has been weakened. In the face of serious allegations about human rights violations in J&K, the Supreme Court has “ducked, evaded and adjourned”, as put across by advocate Gautam Bhatia.

While responding to criticism against its human rights practices, the Indian government also refers to the role of free media and civil society in protecting the human rights of​​ vulnerable groups. However, in the context of J&K and the ongoing struggle against the CAA, the media has not come out any better. As for civil society organisations, the government since 2014 has systematically targeted them, including by making it difficult for them to receive funds from foreign donors. Since 2014, the government has cancelled the registration of about 14,000 NGOs under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA). It has also mainly targeted its own critics.

Indian and international human rights groups are getting increasingly concerned about the actions of people associated with the ruling party who are engaged in the intimidation of​​ critics, attacks against minorities, and restrictions on the freedoms of artistes. The brazen attack on JNU students on January 5 by armed goons and the total lack of response by the police is emblematic of free reign given to non-state actors in various parts of the country.

The international community is sympathetic to governments that are committed to upholding human rights but lack human and other resources to pursue it. In the case of India, it is not a question of resources but an unwillingness to uphold human rights. The government’s action in J&K, the passage of the CAA, and its response to protests​​ on the CAA demonstrate that the present regime is not fully committed to upholding human rights and does not respect international human rights standards. Of course, it is possible for the Indian government, due to its diplomatic clout, to avoid robust intervention by the UN Human Rights Council and other UN human rights mechanisms. However, it would not be able to avoid scrutiny by the international community, which would complement the struggle of the Indian civil society to reclaim the Indian Constitution and advance human rights.

Passage from​​ The Hindu

  • Why is the author critical of the ruling party?

  • It has curbed the freedom of civil​​ society organisation

  • It has made influenced the Supreme Court’s decision to the extent that people no longer trust it

  • It has passed the Citizenship Amendment Act 2019

  • All of the above

  • What are the ramifications of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act​​ (FCRA)?

  • It has adversely affected the freedom of press

  • It has adversely affected the freedom of civil society organisation

  • It has made it difficult for civil society to raise funds

  • It has made the civil society organised virtually incapable of raising their voices against the government

  • What are the safeguards against international intervention in domestic matters?

  • Statements are issued by the OHCHR first before making any move

  • Domestic remedies need to be exhausted before approaching the international bodies

  • Government needs to issue a statement that the matter cannot be dealt with domestically

  • The domestic machinery is no longer capable of handling the matter. The Government of India has assured that the Supreme Court will provide remedies to the victims of human rights violations, thus international intervention cannot happen.

  • What is the public perception of the Supreme Court?

  • It is the highest judicial authority of India

  • Its credibility is beyond questioning

  • There is mistrust in the judiciary

  • There is a​​ lot of pendency in the court and any case would take years before a matter’s fate is determined

  • What does the author think about the role of media in current times?

  • Media is very important to the functioning of a democratic government

  • Media is one of the​​ leading voices of dissent

  • Media can be the leading voice of dissent against the unwarranted and unjustified acts of the government

  • Media is not fulfilling its role

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